Research Project 2005-2007Subsoil amelioration !
Research Project 2005-2007Treatments• control• deep ripped (DR)• DR + gypsum• DR + MAP• DR + gyp/ MAP• DR + coarse sand at 2 sites: - 4 years of grazing lucerne• DR + dynamic lifter (20 t/ha) - continuous cropping• DR + lucerne pellets (20 t/ha) Subsoil manuring• DR + luc.pellets (20 t/ha) /MAP/gypsum
What is happening in the subsoil? Subsoil 4 years after incorporation Control: 30-40 cm Lucerne +: 30-40 cm Across the bed
Subsoil manuring: why does it transform clay?manure microbes + polysaccharides clay particles Roots clay aggregates
Subsoil manuring: how much does it cost? Manure cost: $ 18-25 / tonne Rate: 20 tonne / haFreight: say $ 8-15 / tonneIncorporation: say $150 / ha Poultry litter TOTAL = $ 670-950 /ha (equal to lucerne pellets)
Acknowledgements I would like to acknowledge GRDC for funding (Project ULA0008), and the Australian Research Council for funding (Project LP0455551), and my co-authors Jaikirat Gill, Renick Peries, and Caixian Tang for their great team effort.