Comparison of different soil tillagesystems, under several crop rotations   in wheat production at Central     Anatolian P...
Presentation parts• Introduction of country and region• Background• The objectives of this study• Materials and methods of...
Introduction        Turkey is located in the northern hemisphere        between the 36º - 42º northern parallel and       ...
Introduction           The Central Anatolian Plateu (CAP)    • High plateau    average altitute 1000 m, surrounded by moun...
Introduction                Agricultural lands (M ha)                 Total Area Sown Area Fallow Land       TURKEY       ...
IntroductionThe main purpose of             Tillage is expensive andtillage is to increases yield   also has a quite harmf...
Background      The advantage of No-till and reduced tillage   • Grain yields significantly greater (Hammel      1995, Pap...
The objectives of this study• To evaluate the effect of tillage and previous  crops on wheat yield with irrigated and non ...
Materials and Methods     The field experiments were established in   2002, carried out under rainfed and irrigated       ...
Materials and Methods                        Tillage management             1.Conventional tillage (CT)             2.Redu...
Introduction               Conventional tillage (CT)   First mould board ploughing was used after   harvesting or in early...
Research Results                   Reduced tillage (RT)       Glyphosate herbicide was applied in early spring       or be...
Materials and Methods                        No-till (NT)        Direct drilling was used without any prior tillage       ...
Materials and Methods                    The rotation treatment        Irrigated conditions        a. Continuous winter wh...
Materials and Methods    • The first tillage and herbicide applications in      fallow were performed in April when the so...
Materials and Methods    The effect of tillage management and the previous      crop on winter wheat yield was determined ...
Research Results  Rainfed Conditions           Different crop rotation mean wheat yield                     1.5           ...
Research Results  Rainfed Conditions    Mean wheat yield under different tillage system                 1.5               ...
Research Results Rainfed Conditions    Mean production value, variable costs, and    gross return from different tillage s...
Research Results     Irrigated Conditions      Different crop rotation mean wheat yield                    6              ...
Research Results Irrigated Conditions      Mean wheat yield under different tillage                     system            ...
Research ResultsIrrigated Conditions               Mean wheat yield under different tillage                     system and...
Research Results  Irrigated Conditions                  Continious wheat yield              5              4              ...
Research Results Irrigated Conditions     Mean production value, variable costs, and     gross return from different tilla...
Conclusion   The alternative tillage treatments,        No-till and Reduced till,could be increased yield and profitabilit...
Summary      Less yield and high amount of protuction       value with soil degredations are major      problems for conve...
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Comparison of different soil tillage systems, under several crop rotations in wheat production at Central Anatolian Plateu in Turkey. Yrfan Gültekin

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Comparison of different soil tillage systems, under several crop rotations in wheat production at Central Anatolian Plateu in Turkey. Yrfan Gültekin

  1. 1. Comparison of different soil tillagesystems, under several crop rotations in wheat production at Central Anatolian Plateu in Turkey İrfan GÜLTEKİN, R. Zafer ARISOY , Alper TANER, Yasin KAYA, Fevzi PATİGÖÇ, Şeref AKSOYAK Address : P.O.Box: 125, Konya – TURKEY http: www.bdutae.gov.tr e-mail: irfangultekin@yahoo.com
  2. 2. Presentation parts• Introduction of country and region• Background• The objectives of this study• Materials and methods of field works and evaluation• Research Results• Conclusion• Summary
  3. 3. Introduction Turkey is located in the northern hemisphere between the 36º - 42º northern parallel and the 26º - 45º eastern meridian The country consists of seven regions, with varying climate and topograpy
  4. 4. Introduction The Central Anatolian Plateu (CAP) • High plateau average altitute 1000 m, surrounded by mountains • The climate is continental Summers are hot and dry Winters are cold and snowy Spring and fall are warm and rainy Average annual, rainfall around 300 mm tempereture 11 O C evaporation 1332 mm
  5. 5. Introduction Agricultural lands (M ha) Total Area Sown Area Fallow Land TURKEY 20 16.5 3.5 CAP 9 7 2 • The CAP region, about 15 % of land can be irrigated • Winter wheat is the main crop and wheat fallow is the traditional rotation system • Fallow takes 14 mounths • Nearly 100 % of farmers apply conventional tillage
  6. 6. IntroductionThe main purpose of Tillage is expensive andtillage is to increases yield also has a quite harmfulThe current average effect on soil propertiesconventional practice wheat Farmers use 35 l/ha dieselyield is 2,3 t/ ha and 5 h/ha labor, so theTillage time and equipments represents 13 % of total costeffected wheat yield Over 4.5Mha of cultivated land in CAP is at risk ofBut amount of water erosion(rainfall) is higher effect 75 percent of agriculturalthan tillage on wheat yield land has less than 2% organic matter
  7. 7. Background The advantage of No-till and reduced tillage • Grain yields significantly greater (Hammel 1995, Papendick and Parr, 1997) • Reduced crop production costs (Soanne and Ball 1998) • Reduced soil erosion (Logan et al.1991, Choudhary et al. 1997) • Saving more precipitation for crop production (Peterson et al. 1996, Tanaka and Anderson 1997) • Increased organic matter content (Havlin et al. 1990, Six et al. 1999)
  8. 8. The objectives of this study• To evaluate the effect of tillage and previous crops on wheat yield with irrigated and non irrigated CAP contitions• Which is the profitable systems in CAP conditions?• Is there possible adopting alternative farming practice in our conditons?
  9. 9. Materials and Methods The field experiments were established in 2002, carried out under rainfed and irrigated field conditions in Konya province • The split-plot design were used with tillage management as main plots and rotation treatment as a sub plot, over 4 years • Individual plot size was 10 x 8 = 80 m2 with each plot replicated 3 times
  10. 10. Materials and Methods Tillage management 1.Conventional tillage (CT) 2.Reduced tillage (RT) 3.No-till (NT)
  11. 11. Introduction Conventional tillage (CT) First mould board ploughing was used after harvesting or in early spring at a tillage depth of almost 25 cm, followed by two cultivator passes before planting, with a tillage depth was almost 10 cm and sowing with a conventional seed drill
  12. 12. Research Results Reduced tillage (RT) Glyphosate herbicide was applied in early spring or before planting, then rototiller was used, at a tillage depth of almost 10 cm, before sowing with a seed drill
  13. 13. Materials and Methods No-till (NT) Direct drilling was used without any prior tillage but glyphosate herbicide was applied in early spring or before planting
  14. 14. Materials and Methods The rotation treatment Irrigated conditions a. Continuous winter wheat b. Beans-winter wheat c. Sugar beet-winter wheat Rainfed conditions a. Continuous winter wheat b. Chickpea-winter wheat c. Fallow-winter wheat
  15. 15. Materials and Methods • The first tillage and herbicide applications in fallow were performed in April when the soil is suitable for plowing • Residue was retained on the soil surface • Winter wheat was generally planted at September and was harvested in mid July • Fertilizer application followed locally recommended • Providing the same amount of water on irrigated experiment
  16. 16. Materials and Methods The effect of tillage management and the previous crop on winter wheat yield was determined in 2005 and 2007 • Treatment effects were compared through an analysis of variance using ANOVA with year effects as random • Partial budgeting techniques were used to calculate the variable costs of production for each tillage system including any costs that vary in proportion to the area planted • The wheat prices are the regional bench-mark
  17. 17. Research Results Rainfed Conditions Different crop rotation mean wheat yield 1.5 1.248 1.147 1 1.037 (t/ha) 0.5 0 Fallow Wheat Chickpea
  18. 18. Research Results Rainfed Conditions Mean wheat yield under different tillage system 1.5 1.317 1.207 1 (t/ha) 0.907 0.5 0 CT RT NT
  19. 19. Research Results Rainfed Conditions Mean production value, variable costs, and gross return from different tillage systems 450 Production value 400 Variable cost 413.07 Gross Return 372.66 350 300 297.52 279.96 (US $) 250 222.22 200 188.88 183.37 150 100 108.8 57.74 50 0 CT RT NT
  20. 20. Research Results Irrigated Conditions Different crop rotation mean wheat yield 6 5 5.459 5.222 4 (t/ha) 3 2 2.53 1 0 Wheat Beans Sugar beet
  21. 21. Research Results Irrigated Conditions Mean wheat yield under different tillage system 5 4 4.403 4.415 4.393 3 (t/ha) 2 1 0 CT RT NT
  22. 22. Research ResultsIrrigated Conditions Mean wheat yield under different tillage system and crop rotations 6000 5000 4000 Sugar beet Sugar beet (t/ha) Beans Wheat Sugar beet Beans Beans 3000 Beans 2000 Sugar beet Wheat Wheat Wheat 1000 0 CT RT NT
  23. 23. Research Results Irrigated Conditions Continious wheat yield 5 4 3 (t/ha) CT RT 2 NT 1 0 1. Year 2. Year 3. Year 4. Year
  24. 24. Research Results Irrigated Conditions Mean production value, variable costs, and gross return from different tillage systems 1600 Production 1400 value 1412.8 1408.85 1405.76 1314.66 1200 Variable 1241.69 1197.74 cost 1000 (US $) Gross 800 Return 600 197.77 171.11 400 91.11 200 0 CT RT NT
  25. 25. Conclusion The alternative tillage treatments, No-till and Reduced till,could be increased yield and profitability Right management, especially crop rotations are necessrary Beans + Wheat Wheat-Wheat (No-till)
  26. 26. Summary Less yield and high amount of protuction value with soil degredations are major problems for conventional tillage winter wheat-summer fallow in CAP The farmers need to switch from conventional to reduced tillage or no-till Because those new systems are performed high yield capasity and more profitable
  27. 27. THANK YOU

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