Conservation agriculture for resource use efficiency and sustainability

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The Green Revolution era focused on enhancing the production and productivity of crops. New challenges demand that the issues of efficient resource use and resource conservation receive high priority to ensure that past gains can be sustained and further enhanced to meet the emerging needs. Extending some of the resource-conserving interventions developed for the agricultural crops are the major challenges for researchers and farmers alike. The present paper shares recent research experiences on resource conservation technologies involving tillage and crop establishment options and associated agronomic practices which enable farmers in reducing production costs, increase profitability and help them move forward in the direction of adopting conservation agriculture.

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  • Hello dear, Nice presentation. I am also from Almora Uttarakhand. We are working on CA and it would be good to listen from you regarding your experiences. please contact on yogi.bhatt20@gmail.com
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Conservation agriculture for resource use efficiency and sustainability

  1. 1. Topic of the seminar “Conservation agriculture for enhancingresource use efficiency and sustainability” Speaker Jagat Bahadur Debbarma M.Sc. (Agri.) 6th year 2011-AMJ-27 CA/AAU- Jorhat( Assam,India)
  2. 2. Agricultural resourcesLand WaterLabour MachineryCapital Fertilizers & other chemicals
  3. 3. After green revolution Food production has more than doubled since 1960s Food production per capita has grown Food price has fallen
  4. 4. Production of Important Commodities(India)Production (Mt) NRCAF (2011)
  5. 5. India’s present scenario Indias food grain production is projected to grow by 0.6 % to 247.6 million tonnes (Mt) in 2012-13 as against 246.2 Mt in 2011-12 The rice production is projected to exceed 100 Mt in 2012-13, while wheat production is pegged at 87.3 Mt The production of coarse grains is projected to rise by 0.7% to 42.3 Mt in 2012-13 Pulses production is estimated to have decreased by 3.7 % to 17.5 Mt
  6. 6.  Production of non-food crops is projected to fall by 1.6% in 2012-13  Crop production is projected to decline by 0.6 % in 2012-13 due to lower output of cotton and sugarcane production  Cotton production is projected to dip by 7.8% to 32.2 million bales in 2012-13  The sugarcane production is projected to fall by 0.9% to 342.5 Mt in 2012-13  Major oilseeds production is expected to grow by 3 % in 2012-13 but Production of groundnuts is estimated to have declined by over 17% to 6.9 MtSource: Centre for monitoring Indian economy, 2012
  7. 7. Projected Demand of Important Commodities(India)Demand ( Mt)NRCAF (2011)
  8. 8. Current production status
  9. 9. Conventional Agriculture Fertilizers to increase crop yields. Pesticides & herbicides to protect crops. Antibiotics and hormones to increase productive efficiency of crops & livestock. Heavy tillage operation. Intensive cropping practice.
  10. 10.  Land exhaustion  Threat to crop species Soil erosion  Habitat destruction Soil compaction  Contaminated food Nitrate run-off  Threat to farmers Loss of biodiversity  Decline in GW table Pollution  Natural imbalance
  11. 11.  20% of the world’s coral reefs were lost and 20% degraded in the last several decades  35% of mangrove area has been lost in the last several decade  Withdrawals from rivers and lakes doubled since 1960Source: Millennium ecosystem assessment
  12. 12.  5-10% of the area of five biomes was converted between 1950 and 1990  > 2/3 of the area of two biomes and >1/2 of the area of four others had been converted by 1990Source: Millennium ecosystem assessment
  13. 13.  Flows of biologically available N in terrestrial ecosystems doubled  Flows of phosphorus tripled  > 50% of all the synthetic N-fertilizer ever used has been used since 1985  60% of the increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 since 1750 Human-produced Reactive Nitrogen Humans produce as much biologicallySource: Millennium ecosystem assessment available N as all natural pathways and this may grow a further 65% by 2050
  14. 14. Total reactive N deposition from the atmosphere
  15. 15. Humans have increased the species extinction rate by as much as 1,000 times 10–30% of mammal, bird, and amphibian species are currently threatened with extinctionSource: Millennium ecosystem assessment
  16. 16.  The distribution of species on Earth is becoming more homogenous  The population size of the majority of species across a range of taxonomic groups are declining Growth in Number of Marine Species Introductions in NorthSource: Millennium ecosystem assessment America and Europe
  17. 17. Continued…
  18. 18. Ecosystem services and poverty reduction
  19. 19. Status of Provisioning Services Service StatusFood Crops  Livestock  Capture fisheries  Aquaculture  Wild foods Fiber Timber +/– Cotton, Silk +/– Wood fuel Genetic resources Bio-chemicals, medicines Fresh water Source: Millennium ecosystem assessment
  20. 20. Source: OUAT, Bhubneswar
  21. 21. Conservation AgricultureThe term Conservation Agriculture (CA) refers to the system ofraising crops without tilling the soil while retaining crop residueson the soil surface. (FAO)Defined as minimal soil disturbance (no-till) and permanent soilcover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainablecultivation system for the future. (Peter R. Hobbs).It is the collective umbrella term commonly given to no-tillage,direct-drilling, minimum-tillage and/or ridge-tillage, to denotethat the specific practice has a conservation goal of somenature. (Baker et al. 2002)
  22. 22. Scenario 1 – Farmer practice Rice – WheatTillage CTResidue RemovalmanagementCrop health As usualNutrient As usualmanagement WCCA 2011, Brisbane, Australia
  23. 23. Scenario 2 : Best Available PracticeRice – Wheat - MungbeanTillage CT-ZT-CTResidue Anchored-removal -management incorporationCrop health Best AvailableNutrient Best Availablemanagement WCCA 2011, Brisbane, Australia
  24. 24. Scenario 3 : Conservation Agriculture Rice – Wheat - CowpeaTillage ZT-ZT-ZTResidue Retention -management Anchored- RetentionCrop health Best AvailableNutrient SSNM basedmanagement WCCA 2011, Brisbane, Australia
  25. 25. Wheat grain/equivalent yield (t/ha) during 2009-10Source: Laik R, Saharawat Y, Singh SS, Ladha JK, 2011 WCCA 2011, Brisbane, Australia
  26. 26. Rice grain yield (t/ha) during kharif 2010 CD (5%): 0.88Source: Laik R, Saharawat Y, Singh SS, Ladha JK, 2011 WCCA 2011, Brisbane, Australia
  27. 27. Aims & Objectives Conserve, improve and more efficient use of available natural resources for sustainability. Minimum soil disturbance by adopting no-tillage and minimum traffic for agricultural Operations. Leave and manage the crop residues on the soil surface. Adopt spatial and temporal crop rotation to derive maximum benefits from inputs and minimize adverse environmental impacts. Integrated management system like INM,IPM,IWM,IFS.
  28. 28. Conservation vsConventional
  29. 29. Rice equivalent yield (t/ha) of different systems under various management practices at PAUCropping System Productivity ( t/ha) Conventional Organic ConservationGM-Basmati Rice- Wheat 12.6 13.0 13.6Turmeric-Onion 19.2 36.9 36.6Summer Groundnut-Garlic 25.3 29.1 29.4Maize-durum Wheat-Cowpea 11.4 12.6 12.3(F)Rice-Garlic + Mentha 24.9 31.0 32.2Source : Sharma et al., 2010
  30. 30. Microbial population under conventional and CA rice farming Conventional conservation Source: Surekha et al. , 2010
  31. 31. FAO, 2008
  32. 32. Conservation Agriculture Conventional Agriculture
  33. 33. Fresh and residual effect of organic manure in rice- chickpea cropping sequence Treatment Rice Grain Yield (q/ha) Chickpea Grain Yield (q/ha) 1995 1996 1997 Average 1995 1996 1997 AverageControl 32.1 31.3 19.7 27.7 10.8 7.1 7.5 8.5Sesbania rostrata 48.6 50.8 50.2 49.9 14.6 10.2 14 13Sunhemp 30.4 50.6 46.9 45.6 13.7 8.1 12 11.3Poultry manure 44.75 51.8 51.7 49.4 16.7 11.2 15 14.3FYM 36.75 49 38.2 41.3 11.7 8.9 11 10.5Nadep Compost 39.30 50.7 43.7 44.6 13.9 9.3 11 11.680:50:30 NPK 46.25 51.6 48.8 48.9 11.7 8.5 10 10.3CD(5%) 2.3 2.2 2.8 - 1.2 0.9 2.9 - Source: Singh et al,2001
  34. 34. Grain yield in CA and conventional agriculture
  35. 35. Components &practices adopted in CA
  36. 36. Mulching Strip croppingMultiple-cropping Contour cultivation
  37. 37. Inter-cropping Zero tillageTerracing Crop rotation
  38. 38. Australia 12 Argentina 4.18United States 1.95 Brazil 1.77 Spain 1.46 China 1.39 Italy 1.11 Germany 0.99 Uruguay 0.93 France 0.85 0 5 10 15 Million hectares countries with most organic agricultural land 2010 FiBL-IFOAM Survey 2012
  39. 39. Effect of different organic sources of nutrients and greenmanuring on yield (kg/ha) of rice grown under lowland conditions Manures Grain yield (kg/ha) C.D(0.05%) Straw yield (kg/ha) C.D(0.05 application %) without green without green green manure green manure manure incorpor manure incorpor ation ation Control 2150 3317 316.5 3433 5305 292.7 FYM @15t/ha 2650 3975 99.4 4237 6359 143.1 Poultry 3453 4844 325.7 5522 7746 322.8 manure @3.5t/ha Vermicompost 3333 4774 140.5 5329 7638 202.4 @4.3t/ha Source: Deshpande and Devasenapathy, 2010
  40. 40. Crop residue potential in India Crop Stubble added Addition of nutrients (kg/ha) (kg/ha) Organic N P K matterRice 4,200 1764 17.6 2.9 25.2Sorghum 2,889 462 6.1 2.6 9.5Maize 667 93 0.6 0.2 2.7Ragi 3,111 899 43.5 3.8 20.5Sesame 778 56 5.5 0.2 1.3Cowpea 444 36 3.1 0.3 3.1Source: Bisoyi,R.N.,2003
  41. 41. Rice equivalent yield (t/ha) of different systems under various management practices at PAU Cropping System Productivity ( t/ha) Chemical Organic Integrated GM-Basmati Rice- Wheat 12.6 13.0 13.6 Turmeric-Onion 19.2 36.9 36.6 Summer Groundnut-Garlic 25.3 29.1 29.4 Maize-durum Wheat-Cowpea 11.4 12.6 12.3 (F) Rice-Garlic + Mentha 24.9 31.0 32.2Source : Sharma et al
  42. 42. Bamboo based cropping systemSL Product/Application Current Expected Expected Market in 2015 Market (Rs. in Crore) (Rs. in Crore)1 Bamboo shoots 4.8 3002 Bamboo as wood substitute 10,000 30,0003 Bamboo ply board 200 5004 Bamboo ply board for use in 1000 3,408 Trucks & 10005 Bamboo Flooring (domestic + 200 1,950 Export)6 Bamboo Pulp & paper 100 2,0887 Bamboo Furniture 380 3,2658 Building & Construction - 3,2989 Tiny Cottage Industry 394 600 Total 12,078.80 45,409Planning Commission, GOI (2003)
  43. 43. Area under zero tillage by continent Continent Area( ha) Per cent of total (%) South America 556,30,000 47.6 North America 399,81,000 34.1 Australia & New 171,62,000 14.7 Zealand Asia 26,30,000 2.2 Europe 11,50,000 1.0 Africa 3,68,000 0.3 Total 11,69,21,000 100%Source: Derpsch, R. and Friedrich, T., 2010
  44. 44. Successfulresults of CA
  45. 45. Source: World Agroforestry centre, Nairobi
  46. 46. Advantages of CA
  47. 47. To FarmersReduced cultivation cost through savings in labour, time and farm power.Improved and stable yields with reduced use of inputs (fertilizers, pesticides).Enhance food security for millions of smallholders in the have developing world (Derpsch and Friedrich, 2009).
  48. 48. To Natural ResourcesImproved biological activity and diversity in the soilReduced pollution of surface and ground waterSavings in non-renewable energy use and increased carbon sequestration.Reduced soil erosion and restore soil fertilityIncrease organic matter and biological activity.
  49. 49. Organic carbon in soil surface (%) 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 Conservation 1.5 Conventional 1 0.5 0 Initial After 4 years fter 11 years A
  50. 50. Source: FAO,2007
  51. 51. Constraints in adoption of CASmall farm holdings Farmers are reluctantIlliterate farmers Communication gap Socio-economic problemsRapid urbanization
  52. 52. Future Strategies for CA in India More area under laser levelling up to 2017 50 per cent area to be bought under CA 12 per cent of the total area under zero tillage up to 2014 Diversification of more area from rice to wheat Relay cropping of wheat in 50 per cent of cotton area
  53. 53. FAO strategic objectives 2010-2019Population GrowthHigher life expectancy, better nutrition demandPressure on natural resourcesDemand on multiple agricultural outputs
  54. 54. Residue retention for nutrient cycling, soil moisture retention, reduced transpirationPromote surface residue retentionBetter weed management practicesCultivar choices for CAPromote public- private partnership for CAMapping of problematic soils and link to CA
  55. 55. Conclusion CA conserve and improves available natural resources for sustainability. It restores soil degradation and increases soil fertility. It reduces the pollution ( Soil, Water and Air). It gives more return to the farmers. Food quality is maintained
  56. 56. “We know more about the movement of thecelestial bodies than about the soil underfoot ” Da vinci THANK YOU

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