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WH Chapter 9 Section 2 Notes
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WH Chapter 9 Section 2 Notes


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  • 1. Section 2 Notes
  • 2. The Holy Roman Empire  In 936, Duke Otto I of Saxony took the title King of Germany  He worked closely with the Church and appointed bishops to government positions  He sent troops to help the pope out  He and his heirs were titled Holy Roman Emperors--”holy” because they were crowned by the pope, and “Roman” because they saw themselves as heirs to the emperors of ancient Rome
  • 3. Duke Otto I
  • 4. Conflicts between Popes and Emperors  Under the reforming pope Gregory VII, the conflict between emperors and the Church erupted  Gregory was one of the greatest medieval popes but he was also among the most controversial
  • 5. Pope Gregory VII
  • 6. Pope Gregory VII  He was determined to make the Church independent of secular rulers  He banned the practice of lay investiture---the practice in which a lay person “invested” or presented bishops with the ring and staff that symbolized their office  According to Pope Gregory VII, only the pope had the right to appoint and install bishops in office
  • 7. Emperor Henry IV  He argued that bishops held their lands as royal fiefs  Since he was their overlord, Henry felt entitled to give them the symbols of office  The feud heated up as the two men exchanged insulting notes
  • 8. Emperor Henry IV
  • 9. The Struggle Intensifies  In 1076, Gregory excommunicated Henry  Henry was faced with revolts at home and was forced to make peace with the pope  Henry traveled to see Gregory and beg for his forgiveness  Gregory knew that Henry was just trying to save his throne. Still, as a priest, he had no choice to forgive a confessed sinner  He lifted the order of excommunication and Henry went on to subdue his rebellious nobles and later forced the pope into exile
  • 10. Concordat of Worms  The struggle over investiture dragged on for almost 50 years  Finally in 1122, both sides accepted a treaty known as the Concordat of Worms  In it, they agreed that the Church had the sole power to elect and invest bishops with spiritual authority  The emperor, however, had the right to invest them with fiefs
  • 11. Frederick Barbarossa  Also known as Frederick I or “Red Beard”  Dreamed of building an empire from the Baltic to the Adriatic  For years, he fought to bring the wealthy cities of northern Italy under his control
  • 12. Frederick Barbarossa
  • 13. The Height of Church Power  Pope Innocent III took office in 1198 and embodied the     triumph of the Church He was actually elected pope a month before he was ordained a priest He claimed supremacy over all other rulers---he clashed with all the powerful rulers of his day Annul---to invalidate Crusade---holy war