Section 2 Notes






In the face of invasion by
Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims, kings and
emperors were too weak to maintain law and
or...








Feudal contract---exchange of pledges between
lord and vassal
Each vassal received a fief (estate)
Fiefs---ra...






Everyone had a place in feudal society
Medieval power structure---Monarch--lords
(dukes and counts)--vassals--le...





These take place all over the country
Professional actors and others dress up in
period costumes, pretend to have ...




For feudal nobles, warfare was a way of life!!!
Rival lords battled constantly for power
Many nobles trained from b...







At the age of 7, a boy slated to become a
knight was sent away to the castle of his
father’s lord
He learned to...









After completing training, the knight knelt before
an older knight and bowed his head
The older knight “dub...








During the early Middle Ages, powerful lords
fortified their homes to withstand attack
Their strongholds inclu...







By the 1100s, monarchs and nobles owned
sprawling stone castles with high
walls, towers, and drawbridges over w...











Noblewomen played active roles in medieval society
because their husbands were often off fighting
They h...










In the later Middle Ages, knights adopted a
code of conduct called chivalry
Chivalry required knights to be...








In theory, chivalry was supposed to place
women on a pedestal
The code of chivalry called for women to be
prot...






The manor (lord’s estate) was the heart of the
medieval economy
Most manors included one or more villages
and the...








Most peasants on a manor were serfs, bound
to the land
Serfs were not slaves who could be bought
and sold but ...








Peasants and their lords were tied together by
mutual rights and obligations
Peasants had to work several days...








Other payments had to be made at Christmas
and Easter
Because money had largely disappeared from
medieval Euro...




Although peasants were not allowed to leave
the manor, they could not be forced off it
In theory, at least, peasants...







The manor was generally self-sufficient
Peasants produced almost everything they
needed, from food and clothing...








A typical manor included a few dozen oneroom huts clustered close together in a
village
Nearby stood a water m...







For most peasants, life was very hard
Men, women, and children worked long hours
from sunup to sundown
During p...








The peasant family ate a simple diet of black
bread with vegetables such as
peas, cabbage, turnips, or onions
...










Like farmers everywhere, European peasants
worked according to the season
In spring and autumn, they plowe...








Still, peasants found occasions to celebrate
such as marriages and births
Welcome breaks came at Christmas an...
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes
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WH Chapter 8 Section 2 Notes

  1. 1. Section 2 Notes
  2. 2.    In the face of invasion by Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims, kings and emperors were too weak to maintain law and order Feudalism---loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divide their landholdings among lesser lords In exchange these vassals (lesser lords) pledge loyalty and service to the greater lord
  3. 3.      Feudal contract---exchange of pledges between lord and vassal Each vassal received a fief (estate) Fiefs---ranged from a few acres to hundreds of square miles Besides the land, each fief also included peasants to work the land, as well as any towns or buildings on the land As part of the feudal contract, the lord promised to protect his vassal; in exchange the vassal promised his lord loyalty, 40 days of military service each year, and monetary payments
  4. 4.     Everyone had a place in feudal society Medieval power structure---Monarch--lords (dukes and counts)--vassals--lesser vassals A vassal could be a vassal to a more powerful lord above him and he could also be a lord to a lesser vassal Vassals often held fiefs from more than one lord and feudal relationships often grew complicated (What would happen if two of your lords were fighting each other??? Who would you pledge your loyalty to???)
  5. 5.    These take place all over the country Professional actors and others dress up in period costumes, pretend to have European accents, and play people from all levels of medieval society Pennsylvania Renaissance Fair, August 3October 27 2013, Saturdays, Sundays, and Labor Day Monday, 11am-8pm
  6. 6.    For feudal nobles, warfare was a way of life!!! Rival lords battled constantly for power Many nobles trained from boyhood for a future occupation as a knight (mounted warrior)
  7. 7.     At the age of 7, a boy slated to become a knight was sent away to the castle of his father’s lord He learned to keep his armor and weapons in good condition Training was difficult and discipline was strict Laziness was punished with angry punches or a severe beating
  8. 8.       After completing training, the knight knelt before an older knight and bowed his head The older knight “dubbed” the young knight and he took his place beside other warriors As feudal warfare decreased in the 1100s, tournaments became popular A lord invited knights from surrounding areas to enter contests of fighting skills Early tournaments were as dangerous as real battles and captured knights were often held for ransom Eventually, tournaments acquired ceremony and ritual
  9. 9.     During the early Middle Ages, powerful lords fortified their homes to withstand attack Their strongholds included a keep, or wooden tower, ringed by a fence The keep was separated from the surrounding area by a moat, or water-filled ditch The strongholds eventually became larger and grander
  10. 10.     By the 1100s, monarchs and nobles owned sprawling stone castles with high walls, towers, and drawbridges over wide moats Wars often centered on seizing castles that commanded strategic river crossings, harbors, or mountain passes Castle dwellers stored up food and water so they could withstand a long siege If attackers failed to starve the defender into submission, they might try to tunnel under the castle walls or ram through them
  11. 11.        Noblewomen played active roles in medieval society because their husbands were often off fighting They had to run the manor while their husbands were away and sometimes even defend her estate in a war The eldest son usually inherited land Daughters of nobles were sent to friends or relatives for training Before her parents arranged her marriage, a young woman was expected to know how to spin and weave and how to supervise servants A few young women learned to read and write As a wife, the young lady was expected to bear many children and be dutiful to her husband
  12. 12.      In the later Middle Ages, knights adopted a code of conduct called chivalry Chivalry required knights to be brave, loyal, and true to their word In warfare, they had to fight fairly Chivalry also dictated that warriors treat a captured knight well or to release him if he promised to pay a ransom Chivalry had its limits
  13. 13.     In theory, chivalry was supposed to place women on a pedestal The code of chivalry called for women to be protected and cherished Troubadours, or wandering poets, adopted this view Their love songs praised the perfection, beauty, and wit of women
  14. 14.    The manor (lord’s estate) was the heart of the medieval economy Most manors included one or more villages and the surrounding lands Peasants, who made up the majority of medieval society, lived and worked on the manor
  15. 15.     Most peasants on a manor were serfs, bound to the land Serfs were not slaves who could be bought and sold but they were not free They could not leave the manor without the lord’s permission If the manor was granted to a new lord, the serfs went along with it
  16. 16.     Peasants and their lords were tied together by mutual rights and obligations Peasants had to work several days a week farming the lord’s lands They also repaired his bridges, roads, and fences Peasants paid the lord a fee when they married, when they inherited land, or when they used the local mill to grind grain
  17. 17.     Other payments had to be made at Christmas and Easter Because money had largely disappeared from medieval Europe, they paid their lord with products such as grain, honey, eggs, or chickens In return for a lifetime of labor, peasants had the right to farm several acres for themselves They were also entitled to their lord’s protection from Viking raids or feudal warfare
  18. 18.   Although peasants were not allowed to leave the manor, they could not be forced off it In theory, at least, peasants were guaranteed: food, housing, and land
  19. 19.     The manor was generally self-sufficient Peasants produced almost everything they needed, from food and clothing to simple furniture and tools Most peasants never traveled more than a few miles from their village They had no schooling and no knowledge of a larger world outside
  20. 20.     A typical manor included a few dozen oneroom huts clustered close together in a village Nearby stood a water mill to grind grain, a tiny church, and the manor house The fields surrounding the village were divided into narrow strips Each family had strips of land in different fields so that good land and bad land were evenly shared
  21. 21.     For most peasants, life was very hard Men, women, and children worked long hours from sunup to sundown During planting season, a man might guide an ox-drawn plow through the fields while his wife walked along side getting the ox to keep moving forward Children helped plant seeds, weeded, and took care of pigs or sheep
  22. 22.     The peasant family ate a simple diet of black bread with vegetables such as peas, cabbage, turnips, or onions They seldom ate meat unless they poach wild game on their lord’s manor, risking harsh punishment in the process If they lived near a river, a meal would include fish At night, they family and any of their cows, pigs, or sheep all slept in their oneroom hut
  23. 23.       Like farmers everywhere, European peasants worked according to the season In spring and autumn, they plowed and harvested In summer, they hayed At other times, they weeded, repaired fences, and performed chores In late winter, when the harvest was exhausted and new crops had not yet ripened, hunger was common Disease took a heave toll, and few peasants lived beyond the age of 35
  24. 24.      Still, peasants found occasions to celebrate such as marriages and births Welcome breaks came at Christmas and Easter, when peasants had a week off from work Dozens of other festivals in the Christian calendar brought days off At these times, people might butcher an animal so that they could feast on the meat There was also dancing and rough sports such as wrestling and ball games

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