Monarchs of France & Britain


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A few key figures in France and England regarding the struggle for political power between monarchs and the people.

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Monarchs of France & Britain

  1. 1.  Monarchs of France & Britain
  2. 2. Henry IV  Edict of Nantes  protected the protestant minority
  3. 3. Henry IV  creates a bureaucracy filled with members of the nobility  controlled every aspect of French life  eliminated competition by the nobility
  4. 4. Richelieu  outlawed all non-state armies  eliminated challenges by minority groups (nobility and Huguenots)
  5. 5. Richelieu  appointed nobles to high court positions or high military positions  reduced the nobles independence  tied the nobility more closely to the king
  6. 6. Louis XIV  never called a meeting of the Estates General  expanded the bureaucracy and appointed intendants  consolidated royal power as an absolute monarch, just as Henry IV and Louis XIII advisor Richelieu
  7. 7. Louis XIV  (by the advice of Colbert) expanded basic industries, built luxury trades, encouraged overseas colonies and regulated their trade  increased the treasury to support his wife’s extravagant spending sprees Françoise d'Aubigné Marquise de Maintenon
  8. 8. Louis XIV  improved and resided in the luxurious palace at Versailles  Versailles becomes the symbol for absolute monarchs across Europe and Louis’ XIV lifestyle the model
  9. 9. James I  declared divine right and absolute rule  dissolved Parliament, collected taxes with Parliament’s consent  angers Parliament who will eventually fight back for a limited monarchy
  10. 10. James I  commissions the writing of the King James version of the Bible  has a lasting influence on English language and literature  becomes a piece of propaganda for the king and his policies
  11. 11. Charles I  signs Petition of Right  on paper acknowledges the power of Parliament as controlling the treasury
  12. 12. Charles I  dissolves Parliament  when Parliament meets again in 11 years, they hold the Long Parliament  civil war ensues  Charles I is executed, this is the first time that a monarch is tried and executed by the people  absolute power will no longer exist in England
  13. 13. Oliver Cromwell  exiled Catholics  believed in religious freedom for other protestant groups  tensions between Northern Ireland and England continue to this day  after 350 years, Jews were welcomed back to England
  14. 14. Oliver Cromwell  suppressed Levellers  imposed strict Puritan rules on society  the population grew tired of the Commonwealth’s military rule and strict Puritan ways  after the death of Cromwell, the new Parliament invited Charles II (son of Charles I) back to England to rule
  15. 15. Charles II  reopened theatres and taverns  presided over a lively court, much like Louis XIV  restored the Church of England as the official church but tolerated other protestants  accepted the Petition of Right  confidence in the position of king grew, though the people remained cautious  after his death, Charles II brother, James II is inherits the throne
  16. 16. James II  flaunted his Catholic faith and appointed Catholics to high office  Protestants feared a restoration of the Roman Catholic Church
  17. 17. James II  suspended laws at whim  William & Mary are invited to rule, thus giving James II an option, leave or be executed (James II left for France)
  18. 18. William & Mary  overthrew James II peacefully  Glorious Revolution
  19. 19. William & Mary  agreed to the English Bill of Rights  creates a limited monarchy  Parliament controls the power of the purse  monarch could no longer interfere in Parliamentary debate or suspend laws
  20. 20. William & Mary  agreed to the English Bill of Rights  Catholics could not become king or queen  reinstated traditional rights, such as trial by jury  abolished excessive fines and cruel and unusual punishment  affirmed the principle of habeas corpus