Church and politics clashed Church leaders and political leaders competed for power and authority. Amid the weak central governments in feudal Europe, Church remained a powerful institution. ▪ CHURCH- shaped the lives of people from all social classes ▪ CHURCH- expanded its political role
Ideally, before the crowning of Charlemagne… GELASIUS I- a pope who introduced the concept on the separation of the church and state. “There are two powers by which this world is cheifly ruled: The sacred authority of the priesthood and the authority of the kings.”
RELIGIOUS SWORD POLITICAL SWORD Held by the emperors Emperors should bow to Held by the pope the pope in religious Pope should bow to the matters emperor in political matters
Church has its own Bishops- settle organization disputes over Church teachings and religious It consisted of different practices ranks of clergy (religious officials) Priests- people’s main contact with the POPE- Bishops- Priests Church.
People looked up to PROMISE OF the church as a SALVATIOIN- an provider of security everlasting life. and religious Sacraments and or community to which religious ceremonies they could belong. paved the way for achieving salvation.
EXCOMMUNICATION INTERDICT Banishment from the Under the interdict, many Church. sacraments and religious Used by popes to wield services could not be power over political performed in the king’s rulers. lands. If a king is Belief: without the excommunicated, all of his sacraments, people might vassals will be freed from be doomed to eternal their duties to him. suffering in hell.
Remember the first emperor of the Roman Empire? Charlemagne. (erratum: Roman Empire not Holy Roman Empire) Crowned by Pope Leo III after winning the favor of the pope. Charlemagne’s death led to the creation of the Holy Roman Empire set the stage for future conflicts between emperors and popes.
Otto the Great- greatly inspired by his “boyhood hero” Charlemagne. Copied Charlemagne in many aspects (ex. Limited nobles’ strength, sought help from the clergy, invaded Italy on the pope’s behalf.) He tried to revive Charlemagne’s Roman Empire and made it the Holy Roman Empire (aka Roman Empire of the German Nation), the strongest state in Europe until 1100.
RESENTMENT grew from the Italian nobles towards the German rule. FEAR transpired among the popes over the growing political power that the German emperors held over Italy. Ban of lay investiture (a ceremony in which the kings and nobles appointed church officials); powerful clergies such as the bishops must not be under the power of any king. Story of Henry IV, a young German emperor, and Pope Gregory VII.
POPE GREGORY VII HENRY IV Bishops must not be under the power of kings/ nobles. The church must not be undermined by them. Ban of lay investiture After meeting with some German bishops he appointed, called Gregory a “false monk, not pope”. After bishops and princes sided With Henry’s vicious reply, the pope, Henry asked for the Gregory had him pope’s forgiveness. excommunicated. THIS BEGINS A SHOWDOWN IN CANOSSA.
“There, having laid aside all the belongings of royalty, wretchedly, with bare feet and clad in wool, he (Henry IV) continued for three days to stand before the gate of the castle. Nor did he desist from imploring with many tears the aid and consolation of the apostolic mercy until he had moved all of those who were present there…” – Pope Gregory in Basic Documents in Medieval History
Monastic revival and church reforms were made to restore and expand the power and authority of the church; Began the Age of Faith Church suffered severe problems Priests could barely read prayers Popes were men of questionable morals Bishops cared more about their position as feudal lords
FIRST: village priests marrying and having families STOPPED BY POPE LEO IX SECOND: simony where positions of the Church are sold by bishops STOPPED BY POPE LEO IX THIRD: lay investiture should be apponted by the Church.
Preaching friars- example Francis of Assisi Dominicans (emphasized scholarship) and Franciscans (treating creatures as if they were their spiritual brothers and sisters) Religious orders for women Examples: Poor Clares and a Benedictine convent founded by Hildegard of Bingen, Germany New church architecture Gothic- thrusting upward as if reaching the heavens. In contrast of the previous Romanesque churches which were heavy and gloomy.
Holy War 3. Pope wants to reclaim What caused the launching of Palestine and reunite the Crusades? Christendom1. Muslims control over the 4. Pope appeals to Christian Palestine (the Holy Land) and knights threaten Constantinople (seat 5. Knights feel religious zeal of the Byzantine Empire) (assurance of heaven if died during the Crusades) and want lands, riches (non-eldest male2. Byzantine emperor (Alexius sons), and adventure Comnenus) calling the Pope 6. Italian cities desiring (Urban II) for help commercial power (merchants financing Crusades to win control key trade routes to India, SE Asia, and China from Muslim traders.
First and second crusades Crusaders were French (mostly), Germans, Englishmen, Scots, Italians, and Spaniards Ill-prepared for the holy war; no knowledge of the geography, climate, and culture of the Holy Land. No strategy to capture Jerusalem Jerusalem fell to the Muslim leader Saladin. Muslims were the victors Third and fourth crusades Led by three powerful European monarchs Philip Augustus of France, Frederick Barbarossa, and Richard the Lion hearted. Barbarossa drowned, Philip fought with Richard resulting in the former’s retreat, Richard was the only one left. Richard fought with Saladin which resulted in a truce. Jerusalem remained under the control of the Muslims. The fourth crusade = looting of Constantinople.
Children’s crusades Belief that God would give children Jerusalem. Many died due to cold weather and starvation. Others were either drowned or sold into slavery. Spanish crusade Reconquista and the Inquisition
Byzantine Empire weakened Pope’s power declined due to the failure of later Crusades Feudal nobles’ power weakened; many knights died and lost their fortunes Italian cities expanded trade and grew rich Trade grew between Europe and Middle Ages.
SALADIN Most famous Muslim leader of the 11oos Most devout man Christians called him honest and brave Captured Jerusalem in the Second Crusade
RICHARD THE LION-HEARTED Good-looking Charming Brave , graceful, gay (?), and ruthless Responsible for the slaughtering of 3,000 Muslim survivors
The Crusades left behind good and bad legacies. One of those bad legacies is the feeling of bitterness and hatred as displayed by the intolerance and prejudice of the Christians. There’s still a clear dispute between Christians and Muslims even up to now. As social scientists, how can we put into rest this so-called religious discrimination?
THE CHURCH CRUSADES FARMING TRADE ANDTHE BUBONIC EUROPEAN TOWNS PLAGUE MIDDLE AGES HUNDREDEDUCATION GOVERNMENT YEARS’ WAR
1. What is the bubonic plague? How did it start? How did this weaken the manorial economy?2. In what years did Europe’s first universities develop? Why were they created? Who were the usual students in these universities?3. Why was there a shift of population from farms into towns? What was the relationship of towns to trade?4. How did the Hundred Years’ War weakened feudal power?5. Describe the emerging central governments in England and France during the medieval time.6. How did farming increase population in the Medieval Ages?
SUBMISSION OF HISTORY JOURNALS Cs – Nov 16 Sr – Nov 17 Be, K, Na- Nov 18 Open notes Quiz within the week. Be prepared.