A Time of Crisis


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Presentation about the undoing of the Middle Ages by way of a few events: Bubonic Plague, Great Schism, and Hundred Years War.

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A Time of Crisis

  1. 1. section 8.5A TIME OF CRISIS
  2. 2.  Over nearly a millennia, three institutions grew during the Middle Ages in Europe: Feudalism, The Church and the Papacy, and monarchs.  A series of events will be the undoing of the power and influence of feudalism and the Church paving the way for monarchs to consolidate power and become absolute leaders over their domain OVERVIEW
  3. 3. FACTOR 1: THE BLACK PLAGUE 1. Where did the plague begin and how did it spread? in Asia spread to Europe through trade
  4. 4. 2. What were some economic effects of the plague? a severe decline in population and trade higher prices peasant revolts decline of the manorial system FACTOR 1: THE BLACK PLAGUE
  5. 5. 3. How did the plague affect the Church? when prayer and penances failed to stop the plague, the Church lost prestige some members of the clergy turned away the sick for fear of contracting the disease themselves FACTOR 1: THE BLACK PLAGUE
  6. 6. 4. When and how did the Great Schism begin? in 1305, when the college of cardinals chose a French pope who moved from Rome to Avignon FACTOR 2: THE GREAT SCHISM (PAPAL CONTROVERSY)
  7. 7. 5. When and how was the Great Schism resolved? in 1414, when the Council of Constance elected a new pope (Pope Martin V) to replace the three popes who had been forced to resign FACTOR 2: THE GREAT SCHISM (PAPAL CONTROVERSY)
  8. 8. 6. How did the Great Schism affect medieval life? weakened the Church and its influence if the clergy could not know who would head the Church, how could they know how to help the people? FACTOR 2: THE GREAT SCHISM (PAPAL CONTROVERSY)
  9. 9. as the Church begins to weaken and its influence wane, scholars begin to outwardly question the authority of the church FACTOR 2: THE GREAT SCHISM (PAPAL CONTROVERSY) Jan HusJohn Wycliffe
  10. 10. FACTOR 2: THE GREAT SCHISM (PAPAL CONTROVERSY) John Wycliffe  Englishman  preached that Jesus Christ, not the pope, was the head of the Church  taught that the Bible, not the pope, was the final authority for Christian life  he was offended by the worldliness and wealth of many of the clergy  helped spread his ideas by inspiring an English translation of the New Testament
  11. 11. FACTOR 2: THE GREAT SCHISM (PAPAL CONTROVERSY) Jan Hus  Bohemian Professor  influenced by Wycliffe’s writings  taught that the authority of the Bible was higher than that of the pope  he was excommunicated in 1412  was invited by German Emperor Sigismund to the Council of Constance in 1414 where he was arrested, tried as a heretic, and burned at the stake
  12. 12. 7. What was the primary reason for the war? English claims to the French throne FACTOR 3: THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR
  13. 13. 8. What was the outcome of the war? French eventually won and the English left France except for the port city of Calais FACTOR 3: THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR
  14. 14. England’s King Edward III claims the right to the French throne after the last Capetian King dies without leaving a successor was fought on French soil ultimately won by the French FACTOR 3: THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR
  15. 15. FACTOR 3: THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR  English longbowmen win the day  archers volleys forced the French archers to flee who, in retreat, were trampled by the charging French knights  French knights were thrown from their horses who were hit by arrows  clad in heavy, bulky armor, the knights could not get up off the ground  English soldiers slew their helpless enemies
  16. 16. FACTOR 3: THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR 9. How did the war effect medieval society? age of chivalry died and nationalism replaced feudal loyalties
  17. 17. Nationalism  prestige and power of the French monarch increased from that of a feudal lord to one of a national leader fighting for the glory of the country FACTOR 3: THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR