WH Chapter 9 Section 3 Notes


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WH Chapter 9 Section 3 Notes

  1. 1. Section 3 Notes
  2. 2. The World in 1050  Several other civilizations were flourishing outside of         Europe during this same time period: Muslim empire India Tang and Song dynasties in China Sonike people of West Africa Mayans and Incas Byzantine empire Seljuk Turks Pope Innocent IV wrote a letter to the Mongols asking for their help in the struggle against the Muslims in Arabic, Mongol, and Latin
  3. 3. The Crusades  At the Council of Clermont in 1095, Pope Urban II called for Christian knights to help fight the Turks and drive them out of the Holy Land  The objective was to capture Jerusalem from the Turks and put it back under Christian control---in today’s world, Jews, Christians, and Muslims all consider Jerusalem to be a holy city  Motivations for the crusaders---religious zeal, win wealth and land, escape troubles at home, adventure  Pope’s motivations---heal the schism between the Roman and Byzantine churches
  4. 4. Pope Urban II
  5. 5. Crusade Battle
  6. 6. Jerusalem
  7. 7. Battle for Jerusalem
  8. 8. Shield and Weapons
  9. 9. Re-Enactment
  10. 10. The Crusades  Only the First Crusade came close to achieving its goals  Christian knights captured Jerusalem in 1099 and      celebrated by massacring Muslim and Jewish residents of the city The Crusades continued off and on for over 200 years Saladin defeated the Crusaders during the Third Crusade The Crusaders were led by Richard the Lionheart During the Fourth Crusade, Christian crusaders ended up fighting each other In 1291, upon capturing the port city of Acre, the Muslims massacred Christians
  11. 11. Map of the Crusades
  12. 12. Saladin and Richard the Lionheart
  13. 13. Effects of the Crusades  Five lasting effects of the Crusades on Europe:  Economic expansion  Introduction of new words  Increased power for monarchs  Increased tensions between Byzantine and Roman churches  Wider world view
  14. 14. Effects of the Crusades  Products introduced into Europe: fabrics, spices, and perfumes  Words we use that came from the Arabic language: sugar, cotton, and rice
  15. 15. Effects of the Crusades  Monarchs won the right to levy taxes in order to support the Crusades  Papal power was brought to its height by the Crusades  Christians realized for the first time that millions of people lived in regions they had never known existed
  16. 16. Marco Polo  Originally from Venice, Italy and in 1271 set out to explore China with his father and uncle  He spent many years in China and eventually returned home and was called the “prince of liars” because people did not believe the stories he told them  While in China, Polo observed a government-run mail service and people using coal to heat their homes
  17. 17. Marco Polo
  18. 18. Reconquista  Reconquista=reconquest of Spain from the Muslim forces  In 1085, Christian forces captured the city of Toledo--their first real success  By 1300, Christians controlled the entire Iberian Peninsula except for Granada  Muslim influences remained strong, though, and helped shape the arts and literature of Christian Spain
  19. 19. Toledo
  20. 20. Toledo
  21. 21. Toledo
  22. 22. Toledo
  23. 23. Toledo
  24. 24. Granada
  25. 25. Alhambra
  26. 26. Alhambra
  27. 27. Alhambra
  28. 28. Alhambra
  29. 29. Alhambra
  30. 30. Alhambra
  31. 31. Alhambra
  32. 32. Alhambra
  33. 33. Alhambra
  34. 34. Alhambra
  35. 35. Ferdinand and Isabella  The marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile in 1469 paved the way the unified Spain  Granada fell in 1492 and this marked the end of the Reconquista  Isabella was determined to bring religious and political unity to Spain
  36. 36. Ferdinand and Isabella
  37. 37. The Inquisition  Under Muslim rule, Spain had enjoyed a tradition of religious toleration where Christians, Jews, and Muslims lived in relative peace  Inquisition---church court set up to try people for heresy  Isabella used this to launch a brutal crusade against Jews and Muslims  People who refused to convert to Christianity were burned alive at the stake
  38. 38. Burning at the Stake
  39. 39. Torture Devices
  40. 40. Inquisition Torture
  41. 41. Inquisition Torture