Section 2 Notes
The Holy Roman Empire
 In 936, Duke Otto I of Saxony took the title King of

Germany
 He worked closely with the Church ...
Duke Otto I
Conflicts between Popes and
Emperors
 Under the reforming pope Gregory VII, the conflict

between emperors and the Church...
Pope Gregory VII
Pope Gregory VII
 He was determined to make the Church independent

of secular rulers
 He banned the practice of lay inv...
Emperor Henry IV
 He argued that bishops held their lands as royal fiefs
 Since he was their overlord, Henry felt entitl...
Emperor Henry IV
The Struggle Intensifies
 In 1076, Gregory excommunicated Henry
 Henry was faced with revolts at home and was forced

to...
Concordat of Worms
 The struggle over investiture dragged on for almost 50

years
 Finally in 1122, both sides accepted ...
Frederick Barbarossa
 Also known as Frederick I or “Red Beard”
 Dreamed of building an empire from the Baltic to the

Ad...
Frederick Barbarossa
The Height of Church Power
 Pope Innocent III took office in 1198 and embodied the






triumph of the Church
He was...
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WH Chapter 9 Section 2 Notes

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WH Chapter 9 Section 2 Notes

  1. 1. Section 2 Notes
  2. 2. The Holy Roman Empire  In 936, Duke Otto I of Saxony took the title King of Germany  He worked closely with the Church and appointed bishops to government positions  He sent troops to help the pope out  He and his heirs were titled Holy Roman Emperors--”holy” because they were crowned by the pope, and “Roman” because they saw themselves as heirs to the emperors of ancient Rome
  3. 3. Duke Otto I
  4. 4. Conflicts between Popes and Emperors  Under the reforming pope Gregory VII, the conflict between emperors and the Church erupted  Gregory was one of the greatest medieval popes but he was also among the most controversial
  5. 5. Pope Gregory VII
  6. 6. Pope Gregory VII  He was determined to make the Church independent of secular rulers  He banned the practice of lay investiture---the practice in which a lay person “invested” or presented bishops with the ring and staff that symbolized their office  According to Pope Gregory VII, only the pope had the right to appoint and install bishops in office
  7. 7. Emperor Henry IV  He argued that bishops held their lands as royal fiefs  Since he was their overlord, Henry felt entitled to give them the symbols of office  The feud heated up as the two men exchanged insulting notes
  8. 8. Emperor Henry IV
  9. 9. The Struggle Intensifies  In 1076, Gregory excommunicated Henry  Henry was faced with revolts at home and was forced to make peace with the pope  Henry traveled to see Gregory and beg for his forgiveness  Gregory knew that Henry was just trying to save his throne. Still, as a priest, he had no choice to forgive a confessed sinner  He lifted the order of excommunication and Henry went on to subdue his rebellious nobles and later forced the pope into exile
  10. 10. Concordat of Worms  The struggle over investiture dragged on for almost 50 years  Finally in 1122, both sides accepted a treaty known as the Concordat of Worms  In it, they agreed that the Church had the sole power to elect and invest bishops with spiritual authority  The emperor, however, had the right to invest them with fiefs
  11. 11. Frederick Barbarossa  Also known as Frederick I or “Red Beard”  Dreamed of building an empire from the Baltic to the Adriatic  For years, he fought to bring the wealthy cities of northern Italy under his control
  12. 12. Frederick Barbarossa
  13. 13. The Height of Church Power  Pope Innocent III took office in 1198 and embodied the     triumph of the Church He was actually elected pope a month before he was ordained a priest He claimed supremacy over all other rulers---he clashed with all the powerful rulers of his day Annul---to invalidate Crusade---holy war

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