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Similar to the other documents it does discuss the struggle farming for a time and provides somesupport for both yes and n...
Assessment:The students will be assessed through writing an essay presenting their knowledge on the question.They will hav...
DOCUMENT PACKET                                                                Document 1Many people moved into the great ...
Document 2Many people had hardships in one form or another in the mid-west of theUnited States. This document covers the s...
Document 3People living and farming during the early 1900s United States made aliving in many different ways. The family i...
Document 4People living in the time around the dust bowl participated in a multitude ofactivities. This document shows som...
Document 5Much like current day events of the past were covered in newspapers. Thisdocument is a collage of many newspaper...
Document 6The land during the time of the dust bowl became extremely barren anddevastated. The image below shows just how ...
CAPTURE SHEET                                               Don’t	  forget	  the	  rules	  of	  a	  successful	           ...
Position Presentation:   4. You and your partner will present your position to your opposing group members. When you      ...
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Man made dust bowl? SAC by Tim Roarty

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Man made dust bowl? SAC by Tim Roarty

  1. 1.                                                                               Academic  Controversy  in  the  History  Classroom   This workshop is sponsored in part by the Library of Congress Teaching with Primary Sources Eastern Region Program, coordinated by Waynesburg University.   Historical Question: Was the dust bowl of the Great Depression a natural disaster?Author: Tim RoartyClass/Grade Level: 11th Grade US HistoryCT Standards: 1.4 Geographical space and place. 1.5 Interaction of humans and the environment.2.2 Interpret information from a variety of primary and secondary sources including electronic media.Overview:In the 1930s the Great Plains of the United States had a series of violent and awful dust storms.They caused many problems for people, economy and the crops growing in the region which was amajor source of income and food for people. There is a debate still going on over what caused thedust bowl. There are two main sides of the debate. One is it was a natural disaster primarily causedby long periods of drought. The other is that the dust bowls were caused mostly by the people overfarming the land and abusing the resources there beyond repair resulting in the storms. The period ofdrought and storms caused many people to flee living in the area and the region to struggle for awhile.Document Summary:Document 1 shows that people living in the region of the dust bowl were ‘ambitious’ and may haveabused the land. Also it discusses some of the farming that was happening during the time periodaround the dust bowl and supports that the dust bowl may not have been a natural disaster. Thedocument also has some information on the drought of the period making it complex and showingsome support for both sides.Document 2 shows some of the hardships people faced when moving to and living in the region of theGreat Plains and mid-west. It talks about some of the experiences the people had including moreabout the struggle with the droughts. The document makes a personal tie and connection for peoplein present time to the past. This document primarily supports the yes side that the dust bowl was anatural disaster.Document 3 shows a glimpse into the life of a woman living during the time period based around thequestion for the lesson. It shows that the family was fairly wealthy and they were living a littleexcessively. It discusses how they farmed and where and the extent to which they were farming.
  2. 2. Similar to the other documents it does discuss the struggle farming for a time and provides somesupport for both yes and no answers to the question.Document 4 shows information about the life another family during the period around the dust bowl.It covers more of the everyday events and family activities the Croslin family participated in. Thedocument is direct quotes from Elbert Croslin and his perspective of what was going on. It talksabout some of the excess and unnecessary purchases and uses around the time supporting that thedurst bowl was not a natural disaster.Document 5 shows a collage of newspaper articles from the time of the dust storms. The titles showsome of the harsh effects of the dust bowl and how they left a huge impact on the region. It mentionsthe effects on farms and implies that the drought was the cause of many storms for some of thearticle titles. This source supports that the dust bowl was a natural disaster.Document 6 shows an image to just how barren the land was during the dust bowl. There is nothingbut a house and desert like land left behind. It shows that the droughts left the land completely ruinedfor farming. There is no extra farming equipment or even people in the image. The image supportsthe idea that it was a natural disaster. It does leave many ideas up to interpretation but the image isvery powerful and a great source to show just how devastating the dust bowl was.Procedure (80 minutes): 1. Introduction of lesson, objectives, overview of SAC procedure (15 minutes) 2. SAC group assignments (30 minutes) a. Assign groups of four and assign arguments to each team of two. b. In each group, teams read and examine the Document Packet c. Each student completes the Preparation part of the Capture Sheet (#2), and works with their partner to prepare their argument using supporting evidence. d. Students should summarize your argument in #3. 3. Position Presentation (10 minutes) a. Team 1 presents their position using supporting evidence recorded and summarized on the Preparation part of the Capture Sheet (#2 & #3) on the Preparation matrix. Team 2 records Team 1’s argument in #4. b. Team 2 restates Team 1’s position to their satisfaction. c. Team 2 asks clarifying questions and records Team 1’s answers. d. Team 2 presents their position using supporting evidence recorded and summarized on the Preparation part of the Capture Sheet (#2 & #3) on the Preparation matrix. Team 1 records Team 2’s argument in #4. e. Team 1 restates Team 2’s position to their satisfaction. f. Team 1 asks clarifying questions and records Team 2’s answers. 4. Consensus Building (10 minutes) a. Team 1 and 2 put their roles aside. b. Teams discuss ideas that have been presented, and figure out where they can agree or where they have differences about the historical questionClosure:The groups of students will each present their consensus about the topic. There will be a groupdiscussion talking about the two different sides of the question. The students will recognize throughthis that there is no one right answer and that the issue is more complicated than a simple yes or no.
  3. 3. Assessment:The students will be assessed through writing an essay presenting their knowledge on the question.They will have choose either the yes or no side for answering the question and using the primarysource documents will have to support the side they choose.Differentiation:There will be both text and visual primary source documents to help the students. If some studentsstill struggle with working with the textual primary sources I will provide them with more images tohelp. And for more advanced students I will provide some more text documents and more complexones.
  4. 4. DOCUMENT PACKET Document 1Many people moved into the great plains of the United States in the early1900s. The people moving and living in the area worked to accomplishmany things such as farming and building a better form of transportationwhich resulted in different consequences.…The  group  petitioned  for  a  post  office  and  September  6,  1912,  Mr.  J.  X.  Shupe  was  appointed  first  post  master.  They  were  also  assigned  a  school  district  and  December  1,  1912,  school  opened  for  the  children  of  eight  or  ten  families.  School  was  held  in  a  small  frame  house  and  Mr.  Shupe  was  the  first  teacher.  Other  families  came  in  1913  and  especially  during  the  year  1914  there  was  an  influx  of  new  homesteaders.This  ambitious  group  began  constructing  a  road  across  the  Rio  Grande  canyon,  the  one  which  is  still  in  use  today.  Previous  to  this  all  wagons  or  cars  came  by  way  of  the  Arroyo  Hondo  road  over  John  Dunns  toil  bridge.  It  was  during  this  year  of  1914  that  it  was  thought  admirable  by  a  group  of  the  Latter  Day  Saints  in  the  community  to  organize  a  branch  of  the  Mormon  Church  and  also  a  Sunday  School.    This little settlement of courageous homesteaders, who year after year, planted suitable dry farmingcrops and then hoped that they would harvest enough to live on, grew and and prospered until1920. At that census the precinct showed 243 persons. Then in 1923 high wages were being paid atthe sawmill at [?] Piedras and the mica mines near-by-were very active. Soon many of thehomesteaders, who have been gradually discouraged by the increasing drought each year, left theirplows and the town of Carson to earn money in other fields of work. But W. K. Shupe remainedand was elected Taos county Probate Judge in 1929 and 1930. By 1930 the population of Carsonhad dwindled to less than 150 including Taos Junction, some five miles to the west. This was therailway station of the Denver and Rio Grande Western and had been nothing but a railway buildingwhile Carson was prospering. However, the railroad had attracted business and a small communityhad been slowly developing there at Stong, (Taos Junction) while Carson had been going downhill.The year 1933-34 brought the most severe drought and those few farmers who still remained ontheir homesteads were reduced to bringing water in barrels and tanks loaded on trucks and wagonshauled five miles after being filled from the Rio Grande River itself. This hauled water supply hadto take care of both household and stock purposes. This further reduced the population. Later a [?]land purchase by the government bought land to the south and west of this area which furtherreduced the population of Carson….Source: Excerpt from The Mormon Church West of the Rio Grande.http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-­‐bin/query/r?ammem/wpa:@field(DOCID+@lit(wpa119070104))
  5. 5. Document 2Many people had hardships in one form or another in the mid-west of theUnited States. This document covers the struggle of one man and hisfamily settling in the region.…When Mr. Rogers was 14 years old his father died. The year following his death was a fine crop year,following three years drought. Mr. Rogers then took his mother and three sisters to Mineral Wells to live, andhe went back to Weatherford, Texas, and freighted from there for three years to make a living for them. He thenwent back to McKinney, Texas, to live. Here he began working in a store and planned to make his life work.Mr. Rogers declares he was eighteen years old before he knew that there was such a thing as a man "beating hisdebts". His father -- as was customary with all ranchmen -- paid his bills once a year. It was during his job in thestore that he had his first experience of this kind. He had hired out for a month, and if, at the end of [this?] timehe had given satisfactory service, he was to continue working. At the end of the month his employer asked himto take charge of the store; doing all the buying and selling. One day two well dressed men came to the storeand wanted to open an account, which Mr. Rogers refused to do, but Mr. Pierce -- the proprietor of the store --did; taking a mortgage on the team and buggy the men were driving, and duly recording the same at the courthouse. For several days the men bought big bills of goods -- each time buying enough to run the ordinary ranchfor three months. Then one {Begin deleted text}Saurday{End deleted text} {Begin inserted text}{Beginhandwritten}Saturday{End handwritten}{End inserted text} they came in and again bought a large bill of goods;that night they left for the Indian Territory and was never seen nor heard from again.…In May 1907, Mr. Rogers filed on a claim near Des Moines, New Mexico, which was then only a station onthe Colorado and Southern railroad. In October of the same year he came to New Mexico with his intentions ofopening a store for himself in the new settlement. His first work was that of hauling wood and water for thesettlers; he then began erecting shacks as the people were coming into the new community faster than sheltercould be provided for them. With in three months he had built seventy-five shacks, and has acquired thesobriquet of "The Shack Builder". He also began locating people from Texas and other parts of the country onhomesteads around Des Moines for which he was paid five dollars per claim. This was the nucleus for thebusiness he is still in, that of Realtor….Mr. Rogers and his wife live on their ranch, a few miles from Des Moines, in the summer and make their homein town in the winter.He has watched the town grow form a little railroad station, whose only inhabitants were the station agent andhis family, to one of the most prosperous towns in Union County; and has also watched its decline during therecent years of drought and depression; but through it all he has retained his jovial disposition and his faith inhis town and fellow men. Such characters as Mr. Rogers, are the real back-bone of the country.Source: Biographies—J.J. Rogershttp://memory.loc.gov/cgi-­‐bin/query/r?ammem/wpa:@field(DOCID+@lit(wpa119060404))
  6. 6. Document 3People living and farming during the early 1900s United States made aliving in many different ways. The family in this document participated infarming in multiple forms and during their experiences farming was met withsome obstacles.About the time Mary and John married, Johns mother died and his father spent the rest of his lifewith them. For two years after their marriage, they rented farms. During their leisure hours, theylearned from the land-lord the art of pottery making. At odd times they made pots, jars, and jugs.For several years the father was provided with a horse and covered wagon and was sent out withthe pottery products to canvass the homes of the farmers and villagers. He was usually gone twoweeks at a time, camping in his wagon and paying for his food with his wares. The profits broughtback by this "travelling merchant" supplemented the savings from the farm and enabled the familyduring a period of ten years to pay for the property on which they are now living. They continued toprosper and in due time paid for another farm of forty acres five miles north of Four Oaks.The Allens had three sons and a daughter, each of whom is married and living away from home.Some years ago a young woman began to live with the family as a servant. She was never marriedbut became the mother of one son and three daughters. The Allens allowed her to stay and helpedher to rear her children. Mary spoke of her four "adopted" children but one of the letter gave me thetrue facts. The foster-children are married and live as tenants within a radius of a few miles….Mary told me that her husband "does not like to work" and hence has had to place a loan on thefarm. The mortgage did not worry her. Apparently she thought it a small matter. The family incomehas been larger in recent years under "control" than when they first married; but the husband istaking life easier and the upkeep of the car eats up the income until they are barely "breaking even"in recent years….The garden was almost a failure due to excessive rain and no effort had been made to cultivate alate garden. The Allens had done some canning, but James and his wife had done almost none,seemingly depending in part upon the generosity of the older couple. James was cordial but did notask his wife to come out and see me. Neither family knew how to estimate an adequate income. Asthey bad done in other years, they would "tough it out" during the winter on potatoes, hog meatwhich they had raised in small quantity, a few cans of vegetables and fruits, and meal and flourwhich they would buy, and anxiously await the vegetable garden in the spring….Source: American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers’Project, 1936-1940http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-­‐bin/query/r?ammem/wpa:@field(DOCID+@lit(wpa227040207))
  7. 7. Document 4People living in the time around the dust bowl participated in a multitude ofactivities. This document shows some of the activities done. It also givesmore of a glimpse to how people were and what they did during this time.…"Well, Ive been about everything else in my life but a cow poke. I rode freight trains into NewMexico when that was still a pretty wild place, met Billy the Kid, outrode most of the cow pokes Iever rode with sin the rodeos I rode in, settled a claim and proved it up, run drug stores and soldmoonshine. I could tell you a wilder tale about running rot-gut liquor than I could about ridinghosses and wet-nursing cows but thats what you want so here goes nothing."First, I was born on my dads stock farm in Lamar county, Texas, on June the 21st, 1885. Ifsomebodyd rushed the stork up about three days, all the niggers all over the country couldcelebrate on my birthday. Well, about the farm. Dad didnt have but a few head of cows and acouple of hosses. Just enough to get under the rope as a stock farm….…"Until we got to Altus Oklahoma, we had the worst matched team Ive ever seen. A little oldmule teamed with a big fine hoss. The big hoss was always pulling the load, and the mule wasalmost excess if it wasnt for the fact that we needed two hosses anyway. While we were in thewagon yard at Altus, a hoss trader came up with a small hoss and said, Bud, let me put this hoss inhere just to show you how fine hell look with your mule. Hes more the mules size and wont costyou a penny because Ill trade even.……"They had wagon yards out on the plains and in the mountains in those days like they havetourist camps these days. One of the busiest wagon yards without a town to support it was LuckySprings, located on the Prairie Dog fork of the Red River, and in Hall county. This place was justlike Ive seen in several picture shows. They had a big stockade around it, and stalls to drive yourwhole outfit into. You could rent rooms if you was so a mind to because they had some log cabinsbuilt over the stalls all around, the supports for the cabin being the separations for the stalls below.In one corner of the wagon yard would be the combination saloon, storehouse, postoffice (if theyhad one there), and office for the yard….Source: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936-1940http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-­‐bin/query/r?ammem/wpa:@field(DOCID+@lit(wpa337011615))  
  8. 8. Document 5Much like current day events of the past were covered in newspapers. Thisdocument is a collage of many newspaper article of the time around thedust bowl. It shows many feelings and ideas about the events of the dustbowlSource: http://memory.loc.gov/service/pnp/fsa/8e03000/8e03200/8e03296r.jpg
  9. 9. Document 6The land during the time of the dust bowl became extremely barren anddevastated. The image below shows just how devastating the events wereon farm land.Source: http://memory.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3c30000/3c30000/3c30600/3c30634v.jpg   Some of the language and phrasing in these documents have been modified from the originals.
  10. 10. CAPTURE SHEET Don’t  forget  the  rules  of  a  successful   academic  controversy!   1. Practice  active  listening.   2. Challenge  ideas,  not  each  other  Was the dust bowl of the Great Depression a 3. Try  your  best  to  understand  the  other  natural disaster? positions   4. Share  the  floor:  each  person  in  a  pair   MUST  have  an  opportunity  to  speak   5. No  disagreeing  until  consensus-­‐ building  as  a  group  of  four  Preparation: 1. Highlight your assigned position. Yes: The dust bowl of the Great Depression was a natural disaster. No: The dust bowl of the Great Depression was not a natural disaster. 2. Read through each document searching for support for your side’s argument. Use the documents to fill in the chart (Hint: Not all documents support your side, find those that do):Document What is the main idea of this document? What details support your position? # 3. Work with your partner to summarize your arguments for your position using the supporting documents you found above:
  11. 11. Position Presentation: 4. You and your partner will present your position to your opposing group members. When you are done, you will then listen to your opponents’ position. While you are listening to your opponents’ presentation, write down the main details that they present here: Clarifying questions I have for the opposing partners: How they answered the questions:Consensus Building: 5. Put your assigned roles aside. Where does your group stand on the question? Where does your group agree? Where does your group disagree? Your consensus answer does not have to be strictly yes, or no. We agree: We disagree: Our final consensus:

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