Basic blueprint reading


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  • Note: refer to the Core Curriculum Training Guide for more detailed information concerning the subject matter of this presentation.
  • This is a general list of types of drawings that can be created. The following slides will define the purpose of the drawing type what that type of drawings contains.
  • There are also European sizes, such as A4, which need not be discussed here.
  • Title blocks are typically located in the lower right corner of a drawing.
    While contents from manufacturer to manufacturer may vary Title Blocks typically contain the following:
    Drawing Title: identification of what the drawing contains
    Company name: the company that created the drawing or manufactured the items drawin
    Drawing scale: the scale the drawing was drawn in to the real world size of the item
    How many sheets to the drawing there are: some drawings, especially wiring drawings and assembly drawings require many sheets to detail the item drawin
    Which sheet this drawing is: what is the sheet you are currently looking at.
    Designer name or initials: who designed the item
    Who drew the drawing, name or initials
    Who checked the drawing, name or initials
    Date drawing was created
    Revision block to list changes to the drawing.
  • Portions of a typical revision block are:
    REV: the revision usually listed alphabetically with the first revision starting at A
    DATE: the date the revision was made
    DESCRIPTION: a short description of the change made
    BY: the initials of the person making the change
    CHKD BY: the initials of the person who checked the change
  • Bill of Material lists usually include the following:
    ITEM: a numerical list of the items
    QTY:The quantity of this item number used.
    MANUF: The manufacturer of the item
    DESCRIPTION: a brief description of what the item it
    PART NUMBER: the part of number of the item, usually the one supplied by the manufacturer of the item.
  • Add some more examples here of typical scaling here.
    Scaling a drawing varies from Architectural to Engineering preferences.
    For some examples see the table below:
    Mechanical Engineer
    1 = full size
    ¼ (1/2, 1/8, etc.)
    2 (3, 4, etc)
    True size of part
    ¼ of true size
    2 times true size
    12” = 1’- 0”
    6” = 1’– 0”
    3” = 1’– 0”
    Its true size
    ½ true size
    ¼ true size
    Civil Engineer
    1” = 1’
    1” = 10’
    1” = 2 miles
    1/12 true size
    1/120 of true size
    1/63,360 true size
  • Because drawings tend to be large and complex, finding a specific point or piece of equipment on a drawing can be quite difficult. This is especially true when one wire or pipe run is continued on a second drawing.
    To help locate a specific point on a referenced print, most drawings, especially Piping and Instrument Drawings (P&ID) and electrical schematic drawings, have a grid system.
    The grid can consist of letters, numbers, or both that run horizontally and vertically around the drawing
  • The following slides will detail the purpose each basic line type.
  • This type of dimensioning is more commonly used in architectural drawings. Tight tolerances are difficult to achieve in the fractional inch dimensioning methods.
  • This type of dimensioning is more commonly used in mechanical drawings since it allows more accuracy and tighter tolerances. Most measuring tools, like dial calipers are scaled in decimal.
  • The metric system is similar to the decimal system in accuracy and is used in almost all drawing outside of the United States.
  • Note: as shown in the example drawing this method distorts the image of the box. The next method of viewing, called orthographic projection is used to remove this distortion
  • The three views normally drawn are:
    Top, which is sometimes called the plan view
    Front, or front elevation
    Right side, or right elevation
  • See 5.2
    Working drawings: have much of the information the architects design drawing contains, but is much more detailed and are used by the builders for erection of a building. The are fully dimensioned and can include specific drawings for utilities, lighting, plumbing.
    Structural drawings: these drawings will include the framework of a building, the foundations, the supporting columns.
    Floor Plans: these layouts show the arrangement and location of different pieces of machinery, offices and any other objects.
    Elevation drawings: are related to floor plans and show the vertical views of a building.
    Section drawings: sections are cutaway drawings that show details of construction and areas.
    Flow diagrams: these are used when a pattern of product flow needs to be documented and are intended to show how material may flow through a plant.
  • Electronic schematics use symbols for each component found in an electrical circuit, no matter how small.
    The schematics do not show placement or scale, merely function and flow.
    From this, the actual workings of a piece of electronic equipment can be determined.
  • Terminals or terminations of wiring are shown with a dot at the crossed wiring. A common practice used to illustrate terminal strips through out drawings is to put a square around the termination dot and label that symbol with the terminal strip number followed by the terminal position on the terminal strip.
  • Note how the dashed line is used to indicate how the contacts are mechanically connected together and are operated simultaneously. This is a common practice for switches and occasionally relay contacts.
  • The similarities between the resistor, tapped resistor and rheostat is simple, they are also resistors. Just ones of different construction. Occasionally the rheostat or potentiometer symbols are interchanged since the function the similar.
  • It is a common practice to put terminal circles (as illustrated on the solenoid) at the end of the contact and coil symbols to illustrate termination numbers of the coils to plug in sockets and mounts for the relays.
  • The inductor symbol is used to define the field winding of a motor. It can be drawn in various combinations depending on the DC motor type.
  • There are many types of transformers with variations of secondary and primary windings. The symbol is usually modified to illustrate those differences and the main purpose of the symbol is to illustrate the required connection of wiring and jumpers for the proper function of the transformer. A common practice is to note the ratings of the transfomer.
  • The color of the light is typically noted in the symbols. R for red, W for white, B for blue, G for green and A for amber.
  • Note: if more than one contact is contained in the limit switch assembly then the contacts will be connected by a dashed line symbolically.
  • This can refer to air flow switches or liquid flow switches.
  • For a multiple position selector switch each position of the switch is illustrated with a dashed line. Where contacts are made in the circuit at dot or an “X” is used to show when a circuit is connected when the switch is rotated to that position. Normally the off position is illustrated at the center with the contacts drawn in the state of the off position. For switches with more than three positions more dashed lines are add with labels to illustrate the position.
    For a two position selector switch the state of the contacts are drawn in the off or first position of the switch. When the switch is operated the contacts will change with the open contacts closing and the closed contacts opening.
  • Pushbuttons with multiple contacts, see double circuit, are connected by a dashed line to illustrate the switch is one assembly. If contacts of a switch are on different sheets of a drawing the dashed line will have a cross reference to the sheet and line number the other contact is on.
  • Also can be called mushroom head pushbuttons.
  • Control devices, that are represented in the wiring diagrams, are photocells, limit switches, local lights, solenoids, air pressure switches, etc.
    These control devices can be identified by the wiring diagram line number or by I/O address and are represented on both "WD" and "EL” drawings for a control area. The device will have a suffix as follows; photocells (PE), proximity switch (PRS), limit switches (LS), local lights (LS), solenoids (SOL), air pressure switches (PS), tape switch (FS), etc. When a line number is used, such as 211LS, the 2 indicates that the device is on page two line 11 of the "WD" or wiring diagram and that it is a limit switch.
    When the I/O address is employed, a leading digit of "I" or ."1 " is used for inputs. For Example; I0056PE or 10056PE indicates a photocell connected to input address 56. A leading digit of "O" or "0" is used for outputs. For Example; O0037ll or 00037lL indicates a local light connected to output address 37.
  • To differentiate between different voltages, controls, etc., a specification of wire color is set as an industry standard. Conductors are usually color-coded as follows:
    (1) Black--Line, load and control circuits at line voltage, AC or DC.
    (2) Red--AC control circuits.
    (3) Blue--DC control circuits.
    (4) Yellow--Interlock control circuits wired from an external power source.
    (5) Green (with or without a yellow stripe)--Equipment grounding conductors.
    (6) White--Grounded circuit conductor.
    The labeling of wiring, cables and terminals is also a standard used.
    Conductors are identified at each termination by marking with a number to corresponding with the diagram on the wire
    Terminals on terminal blocks shall be plainly and permanently marked to correspond with the identification shown on the electrical diagram(s).
  • If a drawing has multiple sheets the line number will have the sheet number in front of it. For example sheet 1 the first line is 101 and on the second sheet the first line is 201
  • Wire-Reference Numbers
    Each wire in a control circuit is assigned a reference point (number) on a line diagram to keep track of the different wires that connect the components in the circuit.
    Each reference point is assigned a reference number.
    Reference numbers are normally assigned from the top left to the bottom right.
  • Numerical cross-reference systems are required to trace the action of a circuit in complex line diagrams.
    Common rules help to quickly simplify the operation of complex circuits.
    NO Contacts
    Relays, contactors, and magnetic motor starters normally have more than one set of auxiliary contacts.
    These contacts may appear at several different locations in the line diagram.
    Numerical cross-reference systems quickly identify the location and type of contacts controlled by a given device.
    A numerical cross-reference system consists of numbers in parenthesis to the right of the line diagram.
    NC Contacts
    In addition to NO contacts, there are also NC contacts in a circuit.
    To differentiate between NO and NC, NC contacts are indicated as a number which is underlined
  • Manufacturers of electrical relays, timers, counters, etc., include numbers on the terminal connection points.
    These terminal numbers are used to identify and separate the different component parts (coil, NC contacts, etc) included on the individual pieces of equipment.
    Manufacturer’s terminal numbers are often added to a line diagram after the specific equipment to be used in the control circuit is identified.
  • Panel and door layouts are usually a part of the electrical wiring diagrams to show the location of the devices that are mounted in the panel.
    Panel Layout. - The physical position or arrangement of the components on a panel or chassis. In a panel layout the parts (such as relays, fuses, terminals for wiring, wire duct or raceways, etc.) are mounted on a removable back plate within a enclosure.
    The parts are usually shown in a block form in their general location and in the size or window area the component will take on the plate.
    All the components must be labeled as they are on the drawings and the terminal numbering should match terminal notes in the schematic.
    The panel layout is a sheet of the overall electrical diagram.
    Door Layout. – The panel door layout illustrates the location of all the pushbuttons, switches, lights, etc., and labels for those components.
    BOM - with it a BOM (Bill of Materials) is also drawn which lists all the components, by manufacturer’s part numbers, that are contained within the electrical drawings and panel assembly, of which the back plate and door is but a part.
  • The table above illustrates a general list of how manufacturers may identify drawing numbers.
    For example if a drawing number is “WD200” we then know it is a wiring diagram and if a drawing is numbers “EL100” we know it is an electrical layout which will show the location of the devices in the plant.
  • Where the complexity or the control system warrants. a block diagram of control functions may be furnished. Each block shall be identified and cross-referenced in a manner that the internal circuitry may be found readily on the elementary diagram.
    Not all electronics prints are drawn to the level of detail depicting the individual controls and devices, nor is this level of information always necessary.  These simpler drawings are called block diagrams.  Block diagrams provide a means of representing any type of electronic circuit or system in a simple graphic format.  
    Block diagrams are designed to present flow or functional information about the circuit or system, not detailed component data.
    Whatever the block represents will be written inside.
  • Sequence of Operation: A written detailed description of the order in which electrical devices and other parts of the equipment should function.
    Sequence charts can also be tables illustrating the steps and timing of certain operations.
    Sequence charts or routines are usually added as a sheet in equipment drawings if necessary.
  • The numbering system, for the set of drawings which shows the conveyor path and relative equipment locations with dimensions of all electrical devices external to an electrical control panel, starts with a two letter prefix "EL" for Electrical Layout Following the "EL" is a number that represents the control panel. Following this number is a sheet number.
    For example; drawing number EL-XXX-2 would be an electrical layout drawing associated with XXX electrical control panel and sheet number 2 in the set.
    The first few sheets, in a set of "EL” drawings, are conveyor path or equipment location layouts. These drawings show the approximate location of externally mounted electrical devices associated to that particular control panel.
    The next sheet(s) are the electrical equipment schedules. These drawing sheets state the device number, mounting bracket type, means of actuation, function, and manufacture's name/part number for the externally mounted devices.
  • Wiring diagrams are used to show as closely as possible the actual location of each component and wire termination in a circuit.
    Question: Does this circuit function like the Start Circuit Ladder Diagram previously viewed.
  • Electronic schematics use symbols for each component found in an electrical circuit, no matter how small.
    The schematics do not show placement or scale, merely function and flow.
    From this, the actual workings of a piece of electronic equipment can be determined.
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    These shapes and lines in the relative proportions shown, make up a set of basic symbols from which fluid power symbols and circuits are constructed
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  • The dotted line represents the feedback, this opposes the spring and can vary the flow through the valve from full flow, through shut off, to exhaust. The symbol is usually drawn in only this one state. The flow path can be imagined to hinge at the right hand end to first shut off the supply then connect to the exhaust.
  • The dotted line represents feed-forward, this opposes the spring and can be imagined to lift the flow path. When the pressure reaches an excess value the flow path will line up with the ports and flow air to relief.
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  • Note: see pictorial drawing of this circuit in the following slides
  • Refer back to the previous single line drawing and compare the single line diagram to the orthographic view.
  • See 1016v1 for symbols
  • The piping of a single system may contain more than a single medium. For example, the main process flow line may carry water, the associated auxiliary piping may carry compressed air, inert gas, or hydraulic fluid. Also, a P&ID diagram drawing may illustrate instrument signals and electrical wiring as well as piping.
  • The combination of a valve and an actuator is commonly called a control valve.
  • The first three columns above are combined such that the resulting instrument identifier indicates its sensed parameter, the function of the instrument, and the type of instrument. The fourth column is used only in the case of an instrument modifier and is used to indicate the types of signals being modified.
    The following is a list of examples:
    FIC = flow indicating controller
    FM = flow modifier
    PM = pressure modifier
    TE= temperature element
    TR= temperature recorder
    LIC = level indicating controller
    TT= temperature transmitter
    PT= pressure transmitter
    FE= flow element
    FI= flow indicator
    TI= temperature indicator
    FC= flow controller
  • Sensors and detectors by themselves are not sufficient to create usable system indications. Each sensor or detector must be coupled with appropriate modifiers and/or transmitters.
    The exceptions to this are certain types of local instrumentation having mechanical readouts, such as bourdon tube pressure gages and bimetallic thermometers. The slide illustrates various examples of modifiers and transmitters and also illustrates the common notations used to indicate the location of an instrument, for example local or board mounted.
    Transmitters are used to convert the signal from a sensor or detector to a form that can be sent to a remote point f o r processing, controlling, or monitoring. The output can be electronic (voltage or current), pneumatic, or hydraulic. The slide illustrates symbols for several specific types of transmitters.
  • The unilateral method is used when variation from the design size is permissible in one direction only.
    In the bilateral method the dimension figure shows the plus or minus variation that is acceptable.
    In the limit dimensioning method, the maximum and minimum measurements are both stated.
  • A datum is a surface, line, or point from which a geometric position is to be determined or from which a distance is to be measured.
    Any letter of the alphabet except I, O, and Q may be used as a datum identifying symbol.
    A feature control symbol is made of geometric symbols and tolerances.
  • Basic blueprint reading

    3. 3. DRAWING BASICS 3
    4. 4. Objectives Basic Blueprint Reading  Define 4 basic industrial drawing structure  Define line types  Define types of drawings
    5. 5. Purpose of Drawings Basic Blueprint Reading  Drawings 5 are used to convey information about a wide range items such as:  Architectural building layouts  Electrical wiring  Pneumatic or Hydraulic layouts  Location of equipment  How to assemble equipment  Details of equipment
    6. 6. Types of Drawings Basic Blueprint Reading  Civil  Architectural  Structural  Mechanical  Plumbing  Piping  Pneumatic/Hydraulic  Electrical 6
    7. 7. Engineering Drawings general engineering drawing can be divided into the following five major areas or parts. Basic Blueprint Reading A 7 – – – – – 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Title block Grid system Revision block Notes and legends Engineering drawing (graphic portion)
    8. 8. Drawing Sizes Basic Blueprint Reading  Drawings come in a alphabetical list of sizes for A to F with D size being the most typical A – (letter) Metric A4 (210 x 297) A3 (297 x 420) 8 ½ by 11inches B - 11 by 17inches A2 (420 x 594) C - 17 by 22 inches A1 (594 x 841) D - 22 by 34 inches E - 34 by 44 inches F - 28 by 40 inches 8 sizes A0 (841 x 1189)
    9. 9. Title Blocks blocks are the beginning point of a drawing information. Basic Blueprint Reading  Title 9  COMPANY
    10. 10. Revision Blocks revision block notes any changes made to a drawing Basic Blueprint Reading  The  10 Throughout a drawing the revision listed in the revision block may be indicated by a symbol near the modified portion of the drawing such as: A
    11. 11. Parts Lists Basic Blueprint Reading  Parts 11 Lists are called Bill of Materials. It is a list of the material that is used to build the item that is
    12. 12. Scales Basic Blueprint Reading  Drawing 12 scale is a relationship of the size or distance of the item on a drawing to the real item.  For example a scale of ¼” = 1’ means a measurement of ¼ inch (the quote symbol “ is a shorthand for inches) on the drawing equals 1 foot ( the apostrophe symbol ‘ is shorthand for feet) of the real world item.
    13. 13. Grid System drawing grid system allows a specific point on a drawing to be referenced or found. Basic Blueprint Reading A 1 2 3 4 5 6 A B C 13 This point on the drawing is B-3
    14. 14. Basic Lines Basic Blueprint Reading  Object lines  Hidden lines  Cutting plane lines  Centerlines  Extension lines  Dimension lines  Leaders line  Phantom lines
    15. 15. Basic Blueprint Reading Object Line The object line is a heavy, dark line which identifies the visible edges of the drawn object or the surface of an object.
    16. 16. Hidden Line Basic Blueprint Reading  The hidden line is used to show features or edges of an object that is not visible. It is a broken line of medium thickness.
    17. 17. Center Line Basic Blueprint Reading  The center line is used to locate the center of features. It is usually a fine, broken line made of alternating short and long dashes.
    18. 18. Dimension Line / Extension Line Basic Blueprint Reading  Dimension Lines are used to show the extent of a dimension.  Extension Lines are use to extend a point from an object. Extension Line Dimension Line
    19. 19. Phantom Basic Blueprint Reading  Phantom lines are used to represents the outline of an adjacent part.  The also are used to show an alternate position of a given part Phantom 19
    20. 20. Leader Basic Blueprint Reading  A leader is a fine line used to define a point or area. It may have a note, dimension value or a number at the end of it Grind Surface 1
    21. 21. Cutting Plane Line Basic Blueprint Reading  Cutting plane lines are used to indicate where an imaginary cut is made through the object. If it is labeled the section may be redrawn in detail in another part of the drawing. A A
    22. 22. Break Lines lines are uses to terminate a view to  Short Break Line conserve drawing space and avoid congestion. Basic Blueprint Reading  Break  Break lines are also used to separate internal and external features with broken-out sections
    23. 23. Basic Blueprint Reading Break Lines Example The break line is being used to show a part reduced in length on the drawing to conserve space. 3” 250 feet
    24. 24. Section Lines Basic Blueprint Reading  Section lines are used where a surface is illustrated as cut.  It normally is used in a sectional view.  The lines are normally drawn diagonally.
    25. 25. Dimensioning Systems  Different systems of dimensioning are generally Basic Blueprint Reading used 25 – – – Fractional inch Decimal inch SI Metric
    26. 26. Fractional Inch Dimensioning Basic Blueprint Reading 2 Dia 21/32 Dia 3/16 1/2 1 9/16 Dia 26
    27. 27. Decimal Inch Dimensioning Basic Blueprint Reading 2.00 Ø .656 Ø .19 .50 1.56 Ø 27
    28. 28. Metric Dimensioning Basic Blueprint Reading Ø 50 Ø 16.5 5 13 Ø 40 28
    29. 29. Dimensioning Example Basic Blueprint Reading Diameter symbol Typical Radius 29
    31. 31. Drawing Legends Basic Blueprint Reading  Legends 31 are boxes drawn on the drawing to illustrate some of the common or uncommon symbols used.
    32. 32. Isometric Drawings drawings are designed to show a three dimensional view of an object. Basic Blueprint Reading  Isometric 32
    33. 33. Perspective is a method of drawing things as the eye sees them. Basic Blueprint Reading  Perspective Vanishing point 33
    34. 34. Orthographic Drawings projection shows the drawn object from different views Basic Blueprint Reading  Orthographic Top view Left side Right side Front Bottom 34 Projection view Rear
    35. 35. Single Line Drawings Basic Blueprint Reading  35    The single line format represents all electrical lines, plumbing, air lines, hydraulic lines and piping, regardless of size, as single line. System equipment is connected to the lines are represented by simple standard symbols. By simplifying connections and equipment as single lines allow the system's equipment and instrumentation relationships to be clearly understood by the reader. These types of drawings are also called Schematics.
    36. 36. Civil Basic Blueprint Reading  Civil 36 drawings are used to represent construction on the earth or ground areas.  Civil drawings are sometimes called: – – – site plans plot plans survey plans.  They will show contours of the earth, building locations, construction features, utilities, etc.
    37. 37. Contour Lines Basic Blueprint Reading  Contour lines are used in drawings called topographic maps and are used to identify physical features which uses contour lines to join points of equal elevation (height) and thus show valleys and hills, and the steepness of slopes. The elevation or height is a number drawn along the line. 180 160 140 120 110 37
    38. 38. Architectural Basic Blueprint Reading  Architectural drawings or plans are used to illustrate the design of a project.  They include items such as: – – – – – – 38 Working drawings Structural drawings Floor plans Elevation drawings Section drawings Flow diagrams
    39. 39. Gridlines Basic Blueprint Reading  Gridlines refers to the letters and numbers, such as A-1, which identifies the columns of a building in a drawing. C B A 1 Column A-1 2 Column symbol 39 3
    40. 40. Mechanical Basic Blueprint Reading  Mechanical 40 drawings are the plans for objects such as motors, assemblies for equipment, etc.  There are many types of drawings associated with mechanical drawings such as: – – – Exploded view Detail Assembly
    41. 41. Basic Blueprint Reading Example Mechanical Detail 41
    42. 42. Basic Blueprint Reading Example Assembly Drawing 42
    43. 43. Basic Blueprint Reading An Exploded View 43
    44. 44. Pneumatic/Hydraulic Basic Blueprint Reading  Pneumatic 44 or Hydraulic drawings are single line drawings use symbols and lines to illustrate the connection and equipment to be used in the pneumatic or hydraulic equipment. Single Line Schematic example
    45. 45. Plumbing/Piping types of drawings are similar to pneumatic/hydraulic schematics. Basic Blueprint Reading  These 36.00 40.00 TEE PIPELINE Valve TANK Single Line Plumbing Example 45
    46. 46. Single Line Drawing Single line plumbing drawing example Basic Blueprint Reading A 36.00 40.00 TEE PIPELINE Valve TANK 46
    47. 47. Basic Blueprint Reading Orthographic Piping Drawing 47
    48. 48. P&ID Basic Blueprint Reading  Piping 48 and Instrumentation Drawings  These drawings are similar to plumbing but are intended to illustrate the complete piping system and the controlled process flow of material.  All the equipment, pipelines, valves, pumps, instruments and the controls to operate the process are illustrated. They are not drawn to scale.
    50. 50. Electrical Basic Blueprint Reading  Electrical 50 drawings are also single line drawings or schematics that uses symbols for various electrical equipment.  They are usually drawn in a style called a ladder diagram.  Another form of drawing is a wiring diagram which illustrates the wiring in a orthographic or pictorial style.
    51. 51. Example Ladder Basic Blueprint Reading  Ladder schematics or diagrams are drawn with the circuit between two vertical lines, usually the power that supplies the circuit, thus each line creates a “rung” to the ladder. L1 115 VAC Pushbutton Pilot Light L 51 L2
    52. 52. Example Wiring Diagram wiring diagrams draws the single lines from each device exactly as it would be wired. Basic Blueprint Reading  Electrical 52
    53. 53. Electrical Schematics schematics use symbols for each component found in an electrical circuit. Basic Blueprint Reading  Electronic R4 Q2 Q1 D1 C2 T1 R2 R1 L1 - C3 + C1 R3 - + VGG 53
    54. 54. Summary Basic Blueprint Reading  Review Objectives  Question and Answer Session  RETURN 54 TO MAIN MENU
    56. 56. Objectives Basic Blueprint Reading  Define 56 how industrial electrical drawings are structured.  Define Graphical Symbols  Define Electrical wiring diagrams
    57. 57. Types of Electrical Drawings Basic Blueprint Reading  Wiring 57 Diagrams  Block Diagrams  Sequence Charts –  Electronic Schematics -
    58. 58. Diagrams Basic Blueprint Reading  Electrical 58 diagrams are commonly multi-sheet drawings of the wiring of the electrical devices associated with a main control panel, its field devices and sub-panels.  It is usually drawn as a ladder diagram.
    59. 59. Electrical Diagrams  Basic Blueprint Reading  59    The Diagram is drawn between vertical lines or ladder. All devices are shown between the lines and may be referenced as “Single Line” diagrams Controlled, such as relays, devices are drawn on the right side. Contacts, switches and other controlling devices are shown between controlled device and left vertical line Overloads and other circuit breaking devices may be connected to the right of the controlled device.
    60. 60. Example Diagram DISC 1M 1FU 1OL 1L1 1T1 L1 2FU 1T2 1L2 L2 460V 3Ø 60 HYDRAULIC PUMP MOTOR 3 HP 1800 RPM FRAME 213 1MTR 3FU 1T3 1L3 L3 Basic Blueprint Reading 15 AMP 2OL 2T1 2MTR 2T3 H3 H1 H2 H4 T X1 10 AMP 6FU H2 10 AMP 5FU 2PB START MOTORS 1PB MASTER STOP 1 115 V 10 AMP 4FU R 2OL 1OL 3 8 7 1 1 9 2 10 1M CRM AUTOMATIC CRM 4PB 11 CRH MASTER RELAY 3,3 12 AUTOMATIC 5, 14, 16, 21 “AUTOMATIC” CRA 5 5PB MANUAL 14 6 “MANUAL” A CYCLE START 5 16 8 15 MANUAL 6, 7, 15, 18, 23 CRH 3LT CRH 7 6PB CRA R 2LT 3PB RESET 11 10 6 13 5 5 9 4 1M CRM 3 4 10 AMP 7FU 1LT 2 60 SPINDLE MOTOR 2 HP 1800 RPM FRAME 184 2T2 1LS 2CR 18 17 2LS 19 5LS 6LS 20 7CR 21 6CR 22 5 6 23 1 CR 7PB 1CR 26 26 22 21 21 CLAMP PART CONTROL 9, 33, 33, 35, 35
    61. 61. Lines Basic Blueprint Reading  Wiring 61  Field Wiring (external to panel)
    62. 62. Connections Basic Blueprint Reading Wiring Not Connected Wiring Connected Termination or connection Terminal strip and terminal designation 62 TS4-15
    63. 63. Graphical Symbols Basic Blueprint Reading  63   Graphical symbols are used on electrical diagrams to illustrate the wiring between electrical devices and terminals. The electrical devices are either shown in block diagram form or using commonly defined symbols. The following symbols are but a few of those that can be used. A chart should be included on drawings to illustrate any added by the manufacturer.
    64. 64. Graphical Symbols Cont’d Basic Blueprint Reading DISCONNECT Symbol - DISC 64 CIRCUIT BREAKER - CB Or for a single CB
    65. 65. Graphical Symbols Cont’d Resistor Tapped Resistor Basic Blueprint Reading or Rheostat Potentiometer Fuses 65
    66. 66. Relay and Solenoid Symbols Basic Blueprint Reading RELAYS, TIMERS, ETC. Normally Open Contact Normally Closed Contact Coil 66 SOLENOIDS, BRAKES, ETC.
    67. 67. Motors Symbols Basic Blueprint Reading 3 PHASE MOTOR DC MOTOR A DC MOTOR FIELD 67 or A
    68. 68. Basic Blueprint Reading Transformer Symbols 68 H1 H3 H2 H4 Primary or Input Secondary or Output X1 X2
    69. 69. Pilot Lights Basic Blueprint Reading PUSH-TO-TEST 69 R R
    71. 71. Proximity Switch Symbols Basic Blueprint Reading PROXIMITY SWITCH 71 Normally Closed Normally Open
    72. 72. Liquid Level Switches Basic Blueprint Reading NORMALLY OPEN 72 NORMALLY CLOSED
    73. 73. Thermal Switch Basic Blueprint Reading NORMALLY OPEN 73 NORMALLY CLOSED
    74. 74. Pressure Switch Basic Blueprint Reading NORMALLY OPEN 74 NORMALLY CLOSED
    75. 75. Basic Blueprint Reading Foot Switches 75 NORMALLY CLOSED NORMALLY OPEN
    76. 76. Basic Blueprint Reading Toggle Switch 76
    77. 77. Flow Switches Basic Blueprint Reading NORMALLY OPEN 77 NORMALLY CLOSED
    78. 78. Selector Switch 3-POSITION Basic Blueprint Reading Second Off First Position Position Position 78 Circuit is connected when switch is in this position. 2-POSITION
    80. 80. Basic Blueprint Reading E-Stop Pushbuttons 80
    81. 81. Time Delay Relay Basic Blueprint Reading NORMALLY OPEN ENERGIZED DE-ENERGIZED 81 NORMALLY CLOSED
    82. 82. One-line diagram example Basic Blueprint Reading  A one-line diagram uses single lines and graphic symbols to indicate the path and components of an electrical circuit. Switch symbol Fuse symbol Single line conductors PLC Pushbutton symbol Controller symbol Motor symbol 82 M
    83. 83. Control Device Labeling Basic Blueprint Reading   Control devices, that are represented in the wiring diagrams, are photocells, limit switches, local lights, solenoids, air pressure switches, etc. are identified by wiring diagram line number or I/O address if a PLC is controlling it. When a line number is used, such as 211LS, the 2 indicates that the device is on page two line 11 of the Wiring Diagram (WD) drawing. 111PB 111CR 210 211LS 211 83 211Sol
    84. 84. Wiring and Wire Identification  Wiring color code Basic Blueprint Reading  BLACK - Line, Load and Control Circuits at Line Voltage  RED – AC Control Circuits  BLUE – DC Control Circuits  YELLOW – Interlock Control Circuits  GREEN – Equipment grounding  WHITE – Grounded Circuit Conductor  Wire Identification – 84 Conductors are identified at each termination by marking with a number to corresponding with the diagram on the wire
    85. 85. Device Designations Basic Blueprint Reading  85 The device designations or abbreviation, such as examples below, are used on diagrams in connection with the corresponding graphical symbols to indicate the function of the particular device. CB - Circuit Breaker LS – Limit Switch CR - Control Relay T - Transformer FU - Fuse MTR - Motor LT - Pilot Light DISC – Disconnect OL - Overload Relay PB - Pushbutton S - Switch
    86. 86. Line Numbers Basic Blueprint Reading  Each line in a electrical drawing should be numbered starting with the top line and reading down. 115 VAC L1 Pushbutton L2 Relay 1 CR1 Limit Switch Pressure Switch Solenoid 2 Foot Switch 3 4 86 Relay CR2 Temperature Switch Line Numbers
    87. 87. Wire-Reference Numbers Basic Blueprint Reading Wire Numbers 115 VAC L1 Pushbutton 1 2 3 1 1 1 CR3 2 CR1 4 87 3 Relay CR1 4 ( 2, 3 ) 2 Limit Switch 5 Foot Switch 1 L2 7 CR1 CR2 6 8 Relay CR2 Relay CR3 4 (4) 4 (1)
    88. 88. Numerical Cross Reference 115 VAC L1 Basic Blueprint Reading Pushbutton 1 Relay CR1 ( 2, 3 ) CR1 2 Limit Switch CR1 3 Relay CR2 Foot Switch 4 88 CR3 L2 CR2 (4) Relay CR3 Cross Reference to Line Numbers (1)
    89. 89. Terminal Numbers 115 VAC Basic Blueprint Reading L1 Pushbutton 1 2 3 1 2 CR1 1 1 1 CR3 89 3 CR1 4 ( 2, 3 ) 10 2 3 Limit Switch CR1 5 Foot Switch 4 Relay 2 5 1 L2 6 CR2 7 1 3 Relay 6 2 CR2 2 CR3 (4) 4 (1) 10 Relay 8 4 10
    90. 90. Panel/Door Layouts Layout. 1” X 3” 1T1 9 TE RM . 1T2 1T3 271 46 0V 272 2T3 DISC 2OL 1M 9” 1T B  Panel 1 1/2 ”X 3” Layout 1 1 1/2” X 3” 2 3 4 4F U 5F U 5 36 TE RM . R 1LT START MOTORS 2LT R AUTOMATIC 4PB 2PB A 3LT R 6F U 7F U EMERG. RETURN ACTIVE MANUAL 4LT EMERG. RESET MANUAL MASTER STOP RESET 3PB 11PB 6CR 10PB 5LT G HEAD FORWARD R 8CR 9CR 6 1/2” 7 1/8” 29 TE RM . 9LT 1 1/2” X 3” HEAD RETURN 8PB 6LT 7CR 9PB 11 5V CYCLE UNCLAMP A 5CR 55 26 1/2” 1 1/2 ”X 3” 7LT 4CR 53 LUBE FAULT 7 1/2” 1 1/2” X 3” 3T B A FULL DEPTH 3CR 47 52 CLAMPS ARE IN 90 2CR 1 1/2” X 3” 51 HEAD RETRACTED CRH 115V EMERG. RETURN 1PB CRA 1 1/2” X 3” 1CR 12PB 5PB CRM 11 5V AUTOMATIC T 1 1/2 ”X 3” MOTORS RUNNING 460V 1FT8 8 TERM 60 62 64 66 68 70 15 1/8” 8F U 9F U 10F U 11F U 12F U 13F U  Door 1FU 2FU 3FU 2T B Basic Blueprint Reading 9 1/2” 1OL 60 62 64 66 60 70 5 1/2” 115 V”
    91. 91. Drawing Identification Description Air Diagram (Mechanical) These are detailed air Schematic drawings. They show the assembly, material list, and air piping diagram for the air operated devices. E Scale Layout (Mechanical) These are drawings of a conveyor or part of a conveyor. Used for construction. Individual sheets are numbered starting from No.1. EL Electrical Layout (Electrical) These drawings dimensionally locate all electrical equipment on a layout drawing. They are directly referenced to the WD or control panel by the suffix to the EL number. EM Electro Mechanical (Electrical) These drawings are for electro mechanical devices used on a job. Example; a code card of limit switch operator, etc. They are numbered consecutively for the job. EO General Layout (Mechanical) These drawings are dimensionally to scale, but used for general purposes, e.g., complete plant layout to small scale, including many conveyors. Individual sheets are numbered starting from No. 1. HO Hydraulic Diagram (Mechanical) This is a drawing of a hydraulic control circuit. PL Pneumatic Layout (Mechanical) These drawings show the placement of pneumatic devices in relation to the conveyor path. This type of drawing will also reference which of the air diagram drawings (AD) are associated to a pneumatic device. WD 91 Type of Drawing AD Basic Blueprint Reading Prefix Wiring Diagram (Electrical) This complete engineering of an area control includes: schematics, panel layout, and pushbutton stations. WDO General Information (Electrical) This drawing is used to convey general information relative to the system control.
    92. 92. Block Diagrams Basic Blueprint Reading  Block 92 diagrams are simple block diagrams which provides a means to illustrate a control system in a simple graphic format.  Block diagrams are also used to provide functional information.  Block diagrams are also used to illustrate the interconnection of different machines
    93. 93. Basic Blueprint Reading Example Block Diagram Start pushbutton on Process 1 starts if limit switch on Process 1 stops if limit switch off 93
    95. 95. Electrical Layouts - EL Basic Blueprint Reading  Electrical 95 layouts are architectural drawings of the building that shows and identifies the electrical devices associated with a electrical diagram.
    96. 96. Wiring Connection Diagrams Basic Blueprint Reading  Wiring 96 (connection) diagram – a diagram that shows the connection of an installation or its component devices or parts.  This type of wiring diagram shows, as closely as possible, the actual location of each component in a circuit, including the control circuit and the power circuit.
    97. 97. Wiring Diagram Example Basic Blueprint Reading Start Motor Starter Coil M (aux) NO M M M M Stop Thermal Overloads Overload Contact 97 T1 T2 Motor T3
    98. 98. Electronic Schematics schematics use symbols for each component found in an electrical circuit. Basic Blueprint Reading  Electronic R4 Q2 Q1 D1 C2 T1 R2 R1 L1 - C3 + C1 R3 - + VGG 98
    99. 99. Summary Basic Blueprint Reading  Review Objectives  Question and Answer Session  RETURN 99 TO MAIN MENU
    101. 101. Objectives Basic Blueprint Reading  Define 101 Fluid Logic Symbols  Define Fluid Logic Diagrams Define
    102. 102. Shapes and lines that are used to construct symbols and circuits: Basic Blueprint Reading  Shapes 102
    103. 103. Is it Hydraulic or Pneumatic Basic Blueprint Reading  Pneumatic 103 and Hydraulic drawings look very similar and the subject is usually referred to as “Fluid Power”  The basic difference is Flow symbol.  If filled it is hydraulic and unfilled identifies pneumatic. HYDRAULIC PNEUMATIC
    104. 104. Fluid Power Drawings Basic Blueprint Reading  This 104 type of drawing, like electrical drawings are also considered single line drawings.  The line is either an air or hydraulic line connected to a device  The devices are shown as symbols whose intent is show the fluid flow and mechanical operation of the device as well as type of device.
    105. 105. Flow lines Basic Blueprint Reading Flow line 105 Connected lines are illustrated with a connection dot Unconnected lines shown crossing Flexible line Four way junction Singl e o r Hose usually connecting parts with relative movement
    106. 106. Basic Line Symbols Basic Blueprint Reading Line Dashed Chain Line 106 Spring Working line, pilot supply, return, electrical Pilot control, bleed, filter Enclosure of two or more functions in one unit Electrical line 2 10 12 3 1
    107. 107. Circle Shapes Basic Blueprint Reading Circles energy conversion units measuring instrument mechanical link roller 107
    108. 108. Squares and Rectangles Basic Blueprint Reading Square control component connections perpendicular to sides conditioning apparatus connections to corners Rectangle 108 Square at 45o cylinders and valves
    109. 109. Squares and Rectangles Basic Blueprint Reading Rectangles 109 piston certain control methods
    110. 110. Basic Symbols Basic Blueprint Reading Semi-circle Capsule Double line 110 rotary actuator, motor or pump with limited angle of rotation pressurised reservoir air receiver, auxiliary gas bottle mechanical connection piston rod, lever, shaft
    111. 111. Functional Elements Basic Blueprint Reading Triangle Spring Arrow 111 Direction and nature of fluid, open pneumatic or filled hydraulic Long sloping indicates adjustability
    112. 112. Functional Elements Basic Blueprint Reading Arrows Straight or sloping path and flow direction, or motion through a device Tee Restriction 112 Closed path or port
    113. 113. Basic Blueprint Reading Functional Elements Curved arrows are used to illustrate rotary motion Shaft rotation both Seating or connection used in check valves and connectors 113 clockwise from right hand end
    114. 114. Functional Elements Basic Blueprint Reading Temperature Opposed solenoid windings Operator Prime mover 114 Indication or control size to suit M Electric motor M
    115. 115. Function components Basic Blueprint Reading Silencer Pressure to electric switch preset Pressure to electric switch adjustable 115
    116. 116. Basic Blueprint Reading Function components Uni-directional flow regulator Rotating joint Pressure indicator Pressure drop indicator 116
    117. 117. Plant Basic Blueprint Reading Compressor and electric motor Air receiver Isolating valve Air inlet filter 117 M
    118. 118. Combination units Basic Blueprint Reading FRL with shut off valve and pressure gauge Lubro-control unit Filter and lubricator Filter regulator with gauge 118 FRL Combined unit
    119. 119. Basic Blueprint Reading Filters Filter with manual drain Filter with automatic drain Filter with automatic drain and pressure drop indicator 119
    120. 120. Pressure regulators Basic Blueprint Reading  A pressure regulator symbol represents a normal state with the spring holding the regulator valve open to connect the supply to the outlet. Adjustable Regulator simplified Adjustable Regulator with pressure gauge simplified 120
    121. 121. Pressure relief valves Basic Blueprint Reading  A pressure relief valve symbol represents a normal state with the spring holding the valve closed. Adjustable relief valve simplified Preset relief valve simplified 121
    122. 122. Pressure regulators Basic Blueprint Reading Pre-set relieving Pre-set relieving with pressure gauge Adjustable relieving Adjustable relieving with pressure gauge 122
    123. 123. Valve symbol structure Basic Blueprint Reading  The 123 function of a valve is given by a pair of numerals separated by a stroke, e.g. 3/2..  The first numeral indicates the number of main ports. These are inlets, outlets and exhausts but excludes signal ports and external pilot feeds.  The second numeral indicates the number of states the valve can achieve.
    124. 124. Valve symbol structure Basic Blueprint Reading A 3/2 valve therefore has 3 ports (normally these are inlet, outlet and exhaust) and 2 states (the normal state and the operated state)  The boxes are two pictures of the same valve operated 124 normal
    125. 125. Basic Valve Symbols  Basic Blueprint Reading  125     Valve switching positions are illustrated with squares on a schematic. The number of squares is used to illustrate the quantity of switching positions. Lines within the boxes will indicate flow paths with arrows showing the flow direction. Shut off positions are illustrated by lines drawn at right angles to the flow path. Junctions within the valve are connected by a dot. Inlet and outlet ports to the valve are shown by lines drawn to the outside of the box that represents the normal or initial position of the valve
    126. 126. Valve symbol structure Basic Blueprint Reading A 126 valve symbol logic block will show the symbols for each position of the valve states joined end to end as illustrated in the next slide. operated normal
    127. 127. Valve symbol structure valve logic state is illustrated with its state block joined end to end Basic Blueprint Reading  Each 127 operated normal
    128. 128. Valve symbol structure port connections are shown to only one of the diagrams to indicate the prevailing state Basic Blueprint Reading  The 128 normal
    129. 129. Valve symbol structure operator for a particular state is illustrated against that state Basic Blueprint Reading  The 129 Operated state produced by pushing a button
    130. 130. Valve symbol structure operator for a particular state is illustrated against that state Basic Blueprint Reading  The 130 Operated state produced by pushing a button Normal state produced by a spring
    131. 131. Valve symbol structure operator for a particular state is illustrated against that state Basic Blueprint Reading  The 131 Operated state produced by pushing a button Normal state produced by a spring
    132. 132. Valve symbol structure Basic Blueprint Reading  The 132 valve symbol can be visualised as moving to align one state or another with the port connections
    133. 133. Valve symbol structure Basic Blueprint Reading  The 133 valve symbol can be visualised as moving to align one state or another with the port connections
    134. 134. Valve symbol structure Basic Blueprint Reading  The 134 valve symbol can be visualised as moving to align one state or another with the port connections
    135. 135. Valve symbol structure Basic Blueprint Reading A 135 5/2 valve symbol is constructed in a similar way. A picture of the valve flow paths for each of the two states is shown by the two boxes. The 5 ports are normally an inlet, 2 outlets and 2 exhausts
    136. 136. Valve symbol structure Basic Blueprint Reading  The 136 full symbol is then made by joining the two boxes and adding operators. The connections are shown against only the prevailing state
    137. 137. Valve symbol structure Basic Blueprint Reading  The 137 full symbol is then made by joining the two boxes and adding operators. The connections are shown against only the prevailing state
    138. 138. Valve symbol structure Basic Blueprint Reading  The 138 full symbol is then made by joining the two boxes and adding operators. The connections are shown against only the prevailing state
    139. 139. Valve symbol structure Basic Blueprint Reading  139  The boxes can be joined at either end but the operator must be drawn against the state that it produces. The boxes can also be flipped A variety of symbol patterns are possible normally closed normally open
    140. 140. Basic Blueprint Reading Operators Operators of a valve are drawn to the side of a valve box to the side of the box it will be operating. Some operator types are: Lever Push button Pedal Pull button Treadle Push/pull button 140 General manual Rotary knob
    141. 141. Operators Cont’d Basic Blueprint Reading Pressure Spring normally as a return Pilot pressure Roller Differential pressure Uni-direction or one way trip 141 Plunger Detent in 3 positions
    142. 142. Operators Cont’d Basic Blueprint Reading Electrical 142 Solenoid direct Solenoid pilot Solenoid pilot with manual override and external pilot supply Solenoid pilot with manual override and integral pilot supply When no integral or external pilot supply is shown it is assumed to be integral
    143. 143. Port markings Basic Blueprint Reading The valve connections can be labelled with capital letters or numbers as follows: Alphabetical Designations Numerical Designations A, B, C …….. O (excludes L) Leakage Fluid L ………………………… 9 Supply Air P ………………………… 1 Exhaust R, S, T ………………..W 3, 5, 7 …… Pilot Lines 143 Working Lines 2, 4, 6 . . . . Z, Y, X ………………….. 12, 14, 16, 18…
    144. 144. Port Markings Examples 2 2 Basic Blueprint Reading 12 12 10 3 1 2 4 14 2 14 12 3 1 5 144 1 4 12 1 10 3
    145. 145. Basic Blueprint Reading Port Markings 2 12 14 4 1 145 12 10 3 1 2 3 2 12 14 10 1 4 5 2 1 12 3
    146. 146. Simplified cylinder symbols Basic Blueprint Reading Single acting – the load returns cylinder to original position Single acting with spring returning cylinder to original position Double acting – moved by fluid from either end 146
    147. 147. Rotary actuators Basic Blueprint Reading Semi rotary double acting Rotary motor single direction of rotation Rotary motor bi-directional 147
    148. 148. Example Pneumatic Schematic UP PB1 BALANCER VALVE 3 #12 1 #1 #2 #0 2 Basic Blueprint Reading DOWN PB2 #2 COMMON PB3 #1 3 1 #1 #7 #8 1 CLAMP PB4 2 3 4 1 2 UNCLAMP PB5 #3 1 2-2 2-2 4 1 2 1 5 1 #9 2 #10 PV2 NTD3 #11 NTD4 #25 #1 2 1 3 4 2 1 #19 2 12 #16 PV3 2 5 1 4 2 12 5 1 3 1 2 #20 ROTATE RETURN RAISE DISABLE 14 #25 3 OR1 ROTATE SAFETY PB9 #13 OR3 #22 3 1 OR2 3 #13 3 148 CLAMP CYL. A1 BV3 5 1 #11 1 ROTATE ADVANCE 14 #10 CLAMP SAFETY PB8 1 #15 1 1 CLAMP CLOSED LV1 BV2 CLAMP RETRACT 3 ROTATE RET. PB7 3 2 12 #18 #24 NTD2 3 #14 #22 4 3 #8 3 NTD1 3 1 2-2 #6 CLAMP EXTEND 14 PV1 3 1 3 #9 PS1 2 #5 3 BV1 5 1 3 #23 #4 ROTATE ADV. PB6 R1 CLAMP PRESSURE #1 2 COMBINATION BLOCKING VALVE & FLOW CONTROL BV4 #17 ROTATE CYL. B1 #21 3 1 2 1 OR4 RAISE ENABLE #12 3 1 2
    149. 149. Summary Basic Blueprint Reading  Review Objectives  Question and Answer Session  RETURN 149 TO MAIN MENU
    150. 150. PIPING AND PI&D DRAWINGS 150
    151. 151. Objectives Basic Blueprint Reading  Define 151 Piping Drawings  Identify Piping Symbols  Define Process and Instrumentation Drawings (P&ID)  Identify P&ID Symbols
    152. 152. Symbols and Drawings Basic Blueprint Reading  Piping 152 drawings show the size and location of pipes, fittings, and valves.  To read and interpret Piping drawings and Piping and Instrument drawings (P&ID’s), the student must learn the meaning of the symbols.  This presentation discusses some the common symbols that are used to depict system components.
    153. 153. Piping Drawings Basic Blueprint Reading  The 153 single line format is most commonly used in Piping and P&ID drawings.  The single line format represents all piping, regardless of size, as single line.  All system equipment is represented by simple standard symbols.
    154. 154. Pipe Crossing Basic Blueprint Reading  The crossing of pipes without connections is normally shown without interrupting the line.  When there is a need to show that one pipe must pass behind another, the line representing the pipe farthest may be shown with a break, where the other pipe passes in front of it Near pipe Far pipe 154
    155. 155. Connections Basic Blueprint Reading  155 Permanent connections, whether made by welding, gluing or soldering, may be shown as a heavy dot  Detachable connections are shown by a single thick line . Detachable connection Detachable connection such as a flange Permanent connection Adjoining apparatus
    156. 156. Fittings 156 If standard symbols for fittings like tees, elbows, crossings are not shown on a drawing, they are represented by a continuous line.  Basic Blueprint Reading  A circular symbol for a tee or elbow may be used when necessary to show piping coming toward or moving away from the viewer. Pipe Line Without Flanges Pipe Going Away Pipe Coming Towards Pipe Line with flanges connected to ends Rear view flange Front view flange
    158. 158. Pictorial Drawings Basic Blueprint Reading  Pictorial 158 or double line drawings present the same type information as a single line, but the equipment is represented as if it had been photographed.  This format is rarely used since it requires much more effort to produce than a single line drawing and does not present any more information as to how the system functions.
    159. 159. Pictorial example Basic Blueprint Reading  Orthographic CROSS Y-FITTING CAP GLOBE VALVE TEE COUPLING (JOINT) ELBOW 159 Pipe Drawing PLUG CHECK VALVE UNION REDUCER GATE VALVE 45° ELBOW
    160. 160. Common Piping Symbols Comparison Basic Blueprint Reading Pictorial 90° Elbows Straight Tee Reducing Tee Sanitary Tee P-Trap 160 Gate Valve Symbol
    161. 161. Valves Basic Blueprint Reading  Valves are used to control the direction, flow rate, and pressure of fluids GATE VALVE GLOBE VALVE CHECK VALVE CONTROL VALVE PLUG VALVE BALL VALVE BUTTERFLY VALVE 161
    162. 162. P&ID’s  Basic Blueprint Reading  162   The piping of a single system may contain more than a single medium. For example, although the main process flow line may carry water, the associated auxiliary piping may carry compressed air, inert gas, or hydraulic fluid. Also, a fluid system diagram may also depict instrument signals and electrical wires as well as piping. The following slide shows some commonly used symbols for indicating the medium carried by the piping and for differentiating between piping, instrumentation signals, and electrical wires.
    163. 163. Process and Instrumentation Drawings P&ID’s Basic Blueprint Reading  163 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. These process flow diagrams include: Pipe line numbers and directions Pipe specifications and line sizes All equipment All valves All Instrumentation with controlling devices
    165. 165. Valve Symbols 165 Valve Normally Closed Needle Valve Normally Open Needle Valve Normally Closed Ball Valve Normally Open Ball Valve Normally Closed Globe Valve Normally Open Globe Valve Normally Closed Gate Valve Normally Open Gate Valve Normally Closed Butterfly Valve Basic Blueprint Reading Valve Normally Open Two Valve Manifold Blind Flanged Generic Valve Note: the generic valve is commonly used on drawings with the valve state noted next to it N.C.
    166. 166. Control Valve Actuators Basic Blueprint Reading  Some valves are provided with actuators to allow remote operation, to increase mechanical advantage, or both. Below are a few symbols for the common valve actuators. Diaphragm Electric Motor Solenoid 166 Piston Manual
    167. 167. Balloon Labeling Basic Blueprint Reading    A control valve may serve any number of functions within a fluid system. To differentiate between valve uses, a balloon labeling system is used to identify the function of a control valve. The first letter used in the valve designator indicates the parameter to be controlled by the valve. For example: – – – – – F = flow T = temperature L = level P = pressure H = hand (manually operated valve FC Flow Control Valve 167
    168. 168. Basic Blueprint Reading  168 One of the main purposes of a P&ID is to provide functional information about how instrumentation in a system or piece of equipment interfaces with the system or piece of equipment.  The symbols used to represent instruments and their loops can be divided into four categories. Sensed Parameter Type of Indicator or Controller Type of Component Type of Signal F = flow T = temperature P = pressure I = current L = level V = voltage Z = position R = recorder I = indicator C = controller T = transmitter M = modifier E = element I = current V = voltage P = pneumatic
    169. 169. Basic Symbol Modifiers/Transmitters Basic Blueprint Reading Locally Mounted Instrument Board Mounted Instrument Instrument Behind Board Example: Locally mounted voltage to current pressure modifier P/I PM or P/I or E/I Examples of Transmitters FT 169 FT Flow Transmitter PT PressureTransmitter
    170. 170. Controllers Basic Blueprint Reading   Controllers process the signal from an instrument loop and use it to position or manipulate some other system component. Generally they are denoted by placing a "C" in the balloon after the controlling parameter. Flow Controller FC P Temperature Controller TC Proportional - Integral PI Pressure Controller PC Proportional – Integral - Differential PID Level Controller 170 Proportional TC Current to Pneumatic I/P
    171. 171. Components Basic Blueprint Reading  Within every system there are major components such as pumps, compressors, tanks, heat exchangers, and fans. Compressor Steam Turbine Pumps 171 Heat Exchanger Tanks S or or
    172. 172. Misc. Symbols Basic Blueprint Reading  In addition to the normal symbols used on P&ID’s to represent specific pieces of equipment additional drawing symbols are used to guide or provide additional information about the drawing. XX-001-X-Y Pipe or Wire is continued on drawing XX-001 at coordinates X-Y. Flow is to that drawing XX-002-X-Y Pipe or Wire is continued from drawing XX-002 at coordinates X-Y. Flow is from that drawing XX-003-X-Y Pipe or Wire is continued on drawing XX-003 at coordinates X-Y. Flow is in both directions. Building/Area Boundary 172
    173. 173. Example P&ID Drawing Basic Blueprint Reading E-101 REBOILER V-101 DEPROPANIZER E-102 OVERHEAD CONDENSER V-102 REFLUX ACCUMULATOR 125°F 35 COOLING WATER E-102 V-101 FEED 20 255 PSIG 210°F FLARE PC V-102 240# @ 118°f LC 1 245°F FRC LG HEATING MEDIUM E-101 REBOILER 230°F 275°F LC P-101A & 101B PRODUCT STORAGE STORAGE 173 P-101A & 101B PRODUCT AND REFLUX PUMPS
    174. 174. Summary Basic Blueprint Reading  Review Objectives  Question and Answer Session  RETURN 174 TO MAIN MENU
    176. 176. Objectives Basic Blueprint Reading  Define 176 Topographical Maps  Define Contour Maps  Define Geology and Mining Terms  Define Site Plans Drawings  Define Floor Plans  Define Elevation Drawings  Define Structural Drawings and symbols
    177. 177. Topographical Maps Basic Blueprint Reading  Maps 177 which describe in detail local features of the earth’s surface, either natural or man-made, are called topographic maps (or drawings).  Data taken from surveys are used to build these drawings.  Surveying is the actual measurement of distances, elevations, and directions on the earth’s surface.
    178. 178. Contours Basic Blueprint Reading  Most 178 topographical maps are drawn as contours.  Contours are lines drawn on a map to show points of equal elevation; that is, all points on a single contour line have the same elevation.  A contour interval is the vertical distance between horizontal planes passing through successive contours as illustrated in the following slide..
    179. 179. Example Contours Map Basic Blueprint Reading Control Points 179 Contours Relative Elevations Profile
    180. 180. Contours Continued Basic Blueprint Reading  180   Contours may be plotted through the use of patterns of distribution of points of recorded elevation. A popular pattern is the checkerboard or grid survey as illustrated in the next slide. Line are established at right angles to each other, dividing the survey into squares of appropriate size and elevations are determined at the corners of the squares
    181. 181. Basic Blueprint Reading Example Grid Contour Map Contour Elevation Grid 181
    182. 182. Geology and Mining Terms  Basic Blueprint Reading       Strike - The bearing of a horizontal line in a plane, customarily measured from north. Dip - Includes both an angle and a direction between planes Stratum or Seam - layer or deposit bounded by parallel bedding planes. Vein - A deposit in a fissure or fault. Fault - A displacement of one segment with respect to another formation. Thickness - perpendicular distance between the two bedding planes of a stratum, seam, or vein. Outcrop - If a sloping stratum continues without faults, it eventually outcrops (becomes exposed) at the earth’s surface. – 182 See following slide for examples
    183. 183. Basic Blueprint Reading Geology Terms Example Strike Outcrop Area Bedding Plane Dip Angle 183 Fault Plane Seam or Stratum Thickness
    184. 184. Topographical Map Symbols Basic Blueprint Reading  Along with contour lines maps have many basic symbols to illustrate land features and objects. The following are but a few examples. Highway Railroad Telephone Line Power Line 184 Highway Bridge Railroad Bridge Suspension Bridge Dam
    185. 185. Site or Layout Drawings Basic Blueprint Reading  185   Layout drawings are also called general plans and profile drawings. T They provide the necessary information on the location, alignment, and elevation of the structure and its principal parts in relation to the ground at the site. They also provide other important details, such as the nature of the underlying soil or the location of adjacent structures and roads.
    186. 186. Basic Blueprint Reading Example Site Drawing 186
    187. 187. Example Symbols Basic Blueprint Reading Earth-rough grade 187 Concrete Paving Gravel Earth-finish grade
    188. 188. Floor Plans  Floor Basic Blueprint Reading – – – – – 188 plans includes: thicknesses, and character of the building walls on that particular floor the widths and locations of door and window openings the lengths and character of partitions the number and arrangement of rooms the types and locations of utility installations
    189. 189. Floor Layout Example Basic Blueprint Reading Door Symbol 189 Window Symbol
    190. 190. Elevation Drawings Basic Blueprint Reading  Elevation drawings are closely related to the floor plans of a building.  These drawings are of vertical views of the building, usually of the outside walls. Front Elevation 190 Side Elevation
    191. 191. Structural Drawings Basic Blueprint Reading  Architectural 191 and structural drawings are generally considered to be the drawings of steel, wood, concrete, and other materials used to construct buildings.
    192. 192. Basic Blueprint Reading Example of Structural Drawing Detail 192
    193. 193. Beams Basic Blueprint Reading  A beam is identified by its nominal depth, in inches and weight per foot of length.  The cross section of an American Standard beam (I) forms the letter I. These I-beams, like wide-flange beams, are identified by nominal depth and weight per foot or S Symbols 193 p To t n ro F En d Top Front End
    194. 194. Channels A cross section of a channel is similar to the squared letter C. Channels are identified by their nominal depth and weight per foot Basic Blueprint Reading  p To t on Fr C En d Symbols Top End 194 Front or
    195. 195. Angles Basic Blueprint Reading  The cross section of an angle resembles the letter L. Angles are identified by the dimensions in inches of their legs, as L 7 x 4 x 1/2. To n ro F Top Front 195 p End End t L Symbol
    196. 196. Tees Basic Blueprint Reading A structural tee is made by slitting a standard I- or H- beam through the center of its web, thus forming two T-shapes from each beam. In dimensioning, the structural tee symbol is preceded by the letters ST. p To t on Fr Top 196 En d Front End ST or T Symbols
    197. 197. Members Basic Blueprint Reading  197   The main parts of a structure are the load-bearing structural members that support and transfer the loads on the structure while remaining in equilibrium with each other. The places where members are connected to other members are called joints. The total load supported by the structural members at a particular instant is equal to the total dead load plus the total live load.
    198. 198. Vertical Members  Basic Blueprint Reading    198 Columns are high-strength vertical structural members; in buildings they may be called pillars. A pier in building construction may be called a short column. It could rest on a footing or it may be simply set or driven in the ground. In bridge construction a pier is a vertical member that provides intermediate support for the bridge superstructure. The vertical structural members in light-frame construction are called studs. They are supported on horizontal members called sills or sole plates, and are topped by horizontal members called top plates or stud caps. Corner posts are enlarged studs located at the building corners.
    199. 199. Horizontal Members Basic Blueprint Reading  199   A horizontal load-bearing structural member that spans a space and is supported at both ends is called a beam. A member that is fixed at one end is called a cantilever. One type of steel member is actually a light truss and is called an open-web steel joist or a bar-steel joist.
    200. 200. Trusses Basic Blueprint Reading A 200 truss is a framework consisting of two horizontal (or nearly horizontal) members joined together by a number of vertical and/or inclined members to form a series of triangles. Trusses
    201. 201. Summary Basic Blueprint Reading  Review Objectives  Question and Answer Session  RETURN 201 TO MAIN MENU
    202. 202. MACHINE DRAWINGS 202
    203. 203. Objectives Basic Blueprint Reading  Define 203 Tolerances  Define Basic Features of Machine Drawings
    204. 204. Machine Drawings Basic Blueprint Reading  In 204 learning to read machine drawings, we must first become familiar with the common terms, symbols, and conventions defined and discussed in the following slides.
    205. 205. Tolerances  Basic Blueprint Reading  205    Obtaining Absolute accuracy is impossible and therefore variations must be allowed. This allowance is known as tolerance and represents the total amount the dimension may vary. It is stated on a drawing as (plus or minus) a certain amount, either by a fraction or decimal. Limits are the maximum and/or minimum values for a specific dimension. Tolerances may be shown on drawings by several different methods; the following slide shows three examples. – The unilateral method is used when variation from the design size is permissible in one direction only. – The bilateral method a dimension figure shows the plus or minus variation that is acceptable. – In the limit dimensioning method the maximum and minimum measurements are both stated
    206. 206. Tolerance Examples Unilateral Method Basic Blueprint Reading .498 DIA + .000 - .002 Bilateral Method 30° ± 1° .875 ± .005 7± 1 8 64 .500 DIA + .002 - .000 2.250 + .010 - .005 .498 DIA .496 Limit Method 206 .500 DIA .502
    207. 207. Tolerance Symbols Basic Blueprint Reading Flatness & Straightness Roundness Symmetry Angularity (MMC) Maximum Material Condition Perpendicularity Parallelism (RFS) Regardless of Feature size Datum Identifying symbol Concentricity True Position Feature Control Symbol 207 A Symbol .001 M S -A- Tolerance Datum
    208. 208. Class Exercise Basic Blueprint Reading  Do 208 Class Exercise Tolerances
    209. 209. Fillets and Rounds Basic Blueprint Reading  Fillets are concave metal corner (inside) surfaces.  Rounds or radii are edges or outside corners that have been rounded to prevent chipping and to avoid sharp cutting edges Fillet 209 Rounds
    210. 210. Slots and Slides Basic Blueprint Reading  Slots and slides mate two specially shaped pieces of material and securely hold them together, yet allow them to move or slide. Tee Slot Slide 210 Dovetail Slide Tee Slot Dovetail Slot
    211. 211. Keys, Keyseats, Keyways Basic Blueprint Reading A key is a small wedge or rectangular piece of metal inserted in a slot or groove between a shaft and a hub to prevent slippage Flat Bottom Round Bottom Keyseat and Keyway 211 Square
    212. 212. Screw Threads use different methods to show thread on drawings Basic Blueprint Reading  Draftsmen Without Thread Relief With Thread Relief 212 Simplified Method of Thread Representation
    213. 213. Gears Basic Blueprint Reading  When gears are drawn on machine drawings usually only enough gear teeth are drawn to identify the dimensions. Working Depth Whole Depth Dedendum Addendum Clearance Root Dia. 213 Pitch Dia. Outside Dia.
    214. 214. Springs Basic Blueprint Reading  There are three classifications of helical springs: compression, extension, and torsion. Drawings seldom show a true presentation of the helical shape; instead, they usually show springs Common Types of Helical Springs with straight lines Symbol Representation of Springs 214
    215. 215. Finish Marks  Many metal surfaces must be finished with machine tools for various reasons.  A modified symbol (check mark) with a number or numbers above it Basic Blueprint Reading is used to show these surfaces and to specify the degree of finish . x 60° 215 3½ X MIN. 02 x 60° Example of Use
    216. 216. Welding Basic Blueprint Reading  Welding is a process of joining metals by fusion or heating into a single joined mass.  Symbols will define the type of weld required. Square Weld 216 Symbol Fillet Weld Symbol
    217. 217. Weld Drawing Symbols Basic Blueprint Reading  A welding symbol consists of seven basic elements 4. Dimensions = weld is 2 inches long with leg length of ½ inch 1. Reference Line 7. Tail – will have information about the process. OAW is a type of welding here. It is left off if no info needed. 2. Arrow – connects reference line to joint OAW ½ G 3. Weld symbol – this indicates a fillet weld 217 2 5. Supplementary symbols – this illustrates a convex weld 6. Finish symbol – g = grinding, c = chipped, m = machined.
    218. 218. Basic Blueprint Reading Example Drawing 218
    219. 219. Summary Basic Blueprint Reading  Review Objectives  Question and Answer Session  RETURN 219 TO MAIN MENU