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Print lo1 pro forma homework

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  • 1. Producing Print Based Media LO1 Your name
  • 2. To do • Explain method in own words • When it was invented/by who (if information is available) • How the method works/what do you need to do to use this method • What does the method look like when used (include images) • What are the costs involved with using this method • How quickly the process can be done • Provide images to illustrate discussion • Reference at least one example with a image.
  • 3. Hand Printing Methods
  • 4. Etching Etching is a very old hand printing method developed by artists in the 1500s that involves spreading an acid resistant waxy ground onto a sheet of metal and then scratching parts of it off with an etching needle to create a design. Once the design is finished the sheet is dipped into a vat of acid, the acid eats away the exposed metal and leaves small lines that have sunk into the metal. The parts covered by the ground are not affected by the acid. The sheet is then taken out of the vat and the waxy ground is cleaned off before a thick ink is applied to the metal plate. The ink is rubbed into the acid cut lines and wiped away from the other parts and then put through a printing press and apply pressure to achieve a print. Disadvantages of this method are that it requires quite a high level of skill as to do as you must hand draw the design with the etching needle. It also takes time especially when very highly detailed prints are made. The method uses quite harsh chemicals that could be dangerous and toxic as well as very large pieces of machinery like the printing press. Advantages of this method are that once the plate has been made it will last for a very long time and many prints can be made of the same design and now the modern etching chemicals are a lot safer than the original ones used in the 1500s.
  • 5. Etching Many different forms of etching have now been developed and when used together they can often create very interesting results. Commercially it is not really used but it is still widely used as an artistic medium.
  • 6. Linocut Linocut is a more modern hand printing method developed by expressionist artists in Berlin in the early 1900s. Linocut uses a much cheaper and easier to get hold of material (linoleum) to create its prints. Because the printing surface is raised it is a relief printing method. The linoleum is a much easier material to work with than the previously used wood and allows printing blocks to be produced at a much higher rate. Designs are drawn on the linoleum and then unwanted material is removed using a knife or some other such tool. The artist must cut away the unwanted parts but make sure the design he has cut is a reversal of the final image he wishes to print so it comes out correctly once printed. Letters must also be reversed on the lino if they are used. Once the lino is cut, paint of ink is applied and then the print is pressed against the paper or material being printed on. If extra detail and colour is wanted one method is cutting some of the linoleum, doing a print, cutting some more and doing another print in a different colour building the image up. This does mean that more prints can not be made so print numbers must be carefully considered beforehand. The method is loved because of the rustic, hand made look that can be achieved by using it and the distinctive, block shaped images you get with it.
  • 7. Linocut Lino is a strong material and so can produce many prints if looked after carefully. It is a relatively quick method but the regular ink applications that must be made often slow the process down. It is a very cheap method and is very easy if simple designs are created. If doing very intricate designs however this way of printing can be very time consuming especially when the multiple stage method with different colours is used. When using the multiple colour method special care must be made to line the prints up because overlapping of the colours will lower the quality of the print and not look good.
  • 8. Comparison Linocut and etching are quite similar methods of printing in many ways. They both require quite skilled artists in order to create detailed designs as they are hand drawn onto the prints. It is easier to create more detailed designs with etching as each tiny line scratched into the ground can be eaten away by the acid and printed whereas linocut is better at printing larger blocks of shape instead of small detail and lots of lines. Linocut uses cheap and readily available materials that anyone could get hold of and use without the need of getting specialist equipment or materials. Etching on the other hand requires the waxy acid resistant ground be sourced as well as the acid, metal sheets and printing press so is a much more specialised and expensive method of print. Etching only really allows for black and white so although it can create more detail it does not enable the artist to print multiple colours as linocut does.
  • 9. Mechanical Methods
  • 10. Letterpress Letterpress was developed by Johannes Gutenberg during the 1500s and brought on the “age of enlightenment” exposing a much larger number of the population to literature. Before this all books were copied out by hand, this was extremely time consuming and hugely expensive meaning that only the very rich could afford to buy books and only these few could read. With the invention of the letterpress, a much quicker and cheaper method of copying books Gutenberg changed all this. Levels of literacy across England increased rapidly and an information revolution began, taking away a lot of the power the church and the rich had over the poor. This method is not as popular or widely used as it has been in the past but is not used as much today and although it requires boxes of type and some heavy machinery it is not overly expensive. Letterpress is a relatively straight forward concept involving the individual letters of a page being arranged in order to create the type before being inked and put in to the printing press. The printing press applies a large amount of pressure which transfers the ink on to the paper, this pressure also causes a distinct indent on the page. The moveable type is then rearranged and the next pages can be printed.
  • 11. Letterpress Setting up a page of full type can be very time consuming but then many exact prints can be made quickly.
  • 12. Rotogravure
  • 13. Rotogravure Rotogravure printing is where an image is etched onto the surface of a metal plate or cylinder. The etched areas are filled with ink and the raised parts are wiped clean. This process is very similar to the hand printing technique etching. Once the printing plates are prepared, paper or other material can be pressed against it to make a print. Rotogravure can produce fine detailed images and can work well with short print runs but is most effective on long print runs where a large amount of copies are needed. The cost of setting up this method is high but once finished it can rapidly and cheaply produce print at a high quality because of the durable printing surface. To make the cost of making the cylinders worthwhile a very large print line needs to be printed and the huge machinery used means this method is only used on a commercial scale. It can be used for CMYK printing where each colour is applied with its own plate or cylinder with steps in between to allow the colours to dry. The ink used often contains a number of toxic and harmful chemicals.
  • 14. Comparison Rotogravure is really just an evolved and modernised version of letterpress that is able to do more things such as CMYK printing and the ability to print detailed images. Rotogravure and letterpress both take a long time to set up initially but then can complete the print quickly and many times. Letterpress does need to be collaborated after each page however whereas rotogravure can be set up to print constantly. Rotogravure uses some harmful toxic chemicals and also uses huge specialist machinery that can only be used on a commercial scale but letterpress can be used at least scaled down by anyone.
  • 15. Digital Methods
  • 16. Photocopying
  • 17. Photocopying Photocopying was launched in the 1960s and was seen as a huge leap in technology at its time but now they are everywhere. The quality of them has improved greatly and many can do different things like stapling, They still struggle to print quality photograph copies. The way that photocopiers work is that they contain a cylinder that is covered in a photoconductive material that becomes conductive when exposed to light. A lamp shines on the document that is to be copied and the white areas reflect light onto the surface of the cylinder. The areas exposed become conductive and the parts not are negatively charged. The toner in the photocopier is a positively charged powder and it is attracted to the negatively charged parts of the areas of the cylinder. The attracted toner is then transferred onto a piece of paper and heat is applied, melting and sticking it to the paper. Photocopiers are easy to use, versatile; good with short and long print runs and do the job with copying anything. They are cheap to run and are very easily accessible with all schools, colleges or libraries having at least one..
  • 18. Laser Printing
  • 19. Laser Printing Laser printers work in the same way as photocopiers using photosensitive material but instead of a lamp shining through the document a laser beam charges specific parts of the cylinder. This allows the powdered ink to, just like in photocopying, be attracted to the charged sections, then being heated and pressed onto a piece of paper. Laser printers are often much smaller than photocopiers and easy and cheap to run. They are perfect for small print runs such as the type you may need to do in an office. The quality of the images are good especially for prints with a mix of text and images but they are limited to just 4 colour toners.
  • 20. Comparison
  • 21. Print Methods Situations
  • 22. To Do • For each of the following scenarios, you need to decide on the best printing method to use. • You need to explain your choice of method considering technical and aesthetic qualities, cost, speed and the skills and knowledge required.
  • 23. 100 high quality wedding invitations. • Your client wants very high quality wedding invitation and is prepared for them to cost a lot of money and take time to produce. The invitations will be on high quality paper. The invitations will only have text on them.
  • 24. Decision and justification Decision- Letterpress Justification- The client is prepared to pay a lot of money and has allowed for a lot of time to ensure they get high quality invitations. Letterpress takes quite a long time and is quite expensive but as these disadvantages are not an issue for this particular client letterpress is the perfect method. Only 100 prints are required, this relatively small number will be dealt with easily by the printing press and after the letter stamps are arranged should be done quite quickly. Letterpress prints letters very well but does not reproduce images very well, as the invitations only feature text that will not be a problem. The invitations will be on high quality paper, when text is printed onto high quality paper using letter press it leaves a slight indent. This is because of the pressure applied in the print press. The indent on the page gives it a very nice look and will work very well for something like this wedding invitation.
  • 25. 50 special edition greetings cards. • Your client, a talented local artist, wants to produce small print runs of greetings cards. They do not want to use electronic printing methods. They need a cheap and simple method of printing so they can produce small runs of different designs but it needs to look arty and handmade when it’s finished.
  • 26. Decision and justification Decision- Linocut Justification- Linocut is a cheap and simple hand printing method that produces work that has a distinctive hand-made look to it. It was invented by artists in the early 1900’s and is designed to create arty, interesting prints. It is perfectly suited for printing smaller runs and so will meet the artists needs easily. The artist must just cut another piece of linoleum for each new design, this may take time but should not be a problem as the artist has not specified any time constraints.
  • 27. 3000 flyers for coffee shop. • You client has a one week only special coming up and wants 3000 basic, single colour flyers to promote it. As the flyers will be given out in the street they only need to be cheap, in fact, the cheaper the better. They also need to be produced quickly.
  • 28. Decision and justification Decision- Laser Printing Justification- Laser Printing is a very cheap and very easy method of reproducing print products. Laser printers are readily available and can be used to produce relatively large print runs such as the 3000 needed by the client adequately. The client only wants single coloured fliers, laser printers sometimes have trouble printing large areas of one colour but as they are only cheap promotional fliers to be handed out on the street I believe this method will do fine.
  • 29. 100 copies of the village news letter. • The parish council want to produce a monthly news letter for the village. It will be a single side of A4. It will mostly contain text but might occasionally have a black and white picture. It will be given away for free so should be cheap. The council would be interested in printing it themselves to save money.
  • 30. Decision and justification Decision- Photocopying Justification- Photocopiers work perfectly at reproducing text accurately and quickly at a very low cost. Quality of the machines have improved greatly since its launch in the 1960’s so the newsletters should be perfectly legible and of a good standard. In its early days Photocopiers struggled with the printing of images but now they cope better and should easily print the few black and white images the newsletter may sometimes use. Office buildings such as the one the council will use often have photocopiers already on site and so the council could print the newsletters themselves.
  • 31. 100,000 copies of a fashion magazine • WM Fashion want to produce a new catalogue to send out to its current customers as well as its existing ones. It needs to be high quality colour printing but it needs to have a low per copy cost.
  • 32. Decision and justification Decision- Rotogravure Justification- This printing method is relatively costly to set up but once done is cheap per copy on large print runs such as the one required by the client. Rotogravure produces fine, detailed images perfect for the high quality magazine required by the client.