Techniques and technology used in print production


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Techniques and technology used in print production

  1. 1. Techniques and technology used in print production
  2. 2. HAND TECHNIQUESEtching, Linocut, Screen print, Woodcut,Lithography
  3. 3. ETCHINGDefinition of etchingThe process of making a print: The surface of a metal plate is covered in wax and the artist then creates their image by scratching into the wax.The plate is then immersed in an acid bath.The areas of the plate not covered by the wax are then ‘eaten’ away by the acid creating a grove for the ink to sit in.The plate is then covered with ink most of which is then rubbed off so only in ink in the groves remains. Dampened paper is then placed on an etching press and the plate placed ink side down on top of it.All this is covered with layers of padding and run through the press which looks a bit like a mangle.The image has now been transferred to the paper.Photo-etching (also called photogravure or heliogravue) uses a light reactive acid resistant ground.The image is then projected onto the plate reproducing the photographAdvantageThe standard of the outcome is very highDisadvantageVery time consuming
  4. 4. Linocut Linocut is a form of relief printing. A design is carved into a piece of lino(linoleum). This is inked with a brayer and a print made by placing a sheet of paper on top so the ink is transferred to the paper. Pressure is applied to get an even transfer of the ink by either running the linocut block and paper through a printing press or using a burnisher. Advantage The standard of the outcome is very high Disadvantage It is quite complicated
  5. 5. Screen Print Method in which ink is applied directly to the surface to be printed .The image to be printed is photographically transferred to a very fine fabric such that the non- printing areas are blocked off and the fabric serves as a stencil. The ink is wiped across the screen to pass through the unblocked pores and reach the substrate. For each colour to be printed a separate screen is prepared and the process is repeated. It is more suitable for curved shapes, non-porous surfaces and short print runs. AdvantageVery useful commercially DisadvantageImages for screen printing have to be simple
  6. 6. Woodcut Woodcut is a relief printing technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood. The areas to show white are cut away with a knife or chisel, leaving the characters or image to show in black at the original surface level. The block is cut along the grain of the wood .The surface is covered with ink by rolling over the surface with an ink-covered roller leaving ink upon the flat surface but not in the non-printing areas. Advantages Its quick and easy to make Disadvantage Hard to carve small lettering into the template
  7. 7. Lithography A printing technique by which the image to be printed is fixed on a stone or metal plate with a combination of ink-absorbent and ink-repellent vehicles. Lithography is where you use a stone to print on a smooth surface. It was Invented in 1796 It can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or another suitable material Advantages  Cheap Disadvantages Materials are complex to use
  8. 8. Letterpress Letterpress is the oldest form of printing. In this method, a surface with raised letters is inked and pressed to the surface of the printing substrate to reproduce an image in reverse. Typically, metal type has been used but other possibilities include carved wood or stone blocks. After the Gutenberg press introduced movable type to the process in the 15th century, letterpress was the predominant printing method for 500 years. Advantages A simple straightforward process Disadvantages Each colour has to dry before applying the next
  9. 9. Gravure Gravure is a printing method in which an image is applied to a printing substrate by use of a metal plate mounted on a cylinder. Unlike other processes, gravure uses a depressed or sunken surface for the desired image.The image to be reproduced is etched into the metal plate, sometimes with the use of a laser .The metal plate is bathed in ink during the process and then wiped clean before application to the substrate. Advantages The outcome is high quality. Disadvantages expensive
  10. 10. Screen processing Ink is applied to the back of the image carrier and pushed through porous or open areas. Advantages quick, easy and precise Disadvantages If there is one mistake then loads of copies can be destroyed
  11. 11. Photocopying A copying process using photographic methods and equipment. Photocopying may use conventional photographic techniques to produce high-quality copies from fine-tone originals and to prepare offset printing plates, or it may use a simplified process to produce copies of texts, tables, blueprints, and drawings. Advantages Quick and cheap Disadvantages Can break down easily, get jammed and ruin copies
  12. 12. Laser printing A printer that uses a laser and the electro photographic method to print a full page at a time.The laser "paints" a charged drum with light, to which toner is applied and then transferred onto paper. Desktop laser printers use cut sheets like a copy machine. Large printers may use paper rolls that are cut after printing. Advantages Colour printing is possible and quality is good Disadvantages Prints wet and needs time to dry
  13. 13. Inkjet A printer that propels droplets of ink directly onto the medium. Today, almost all inkjet printers produce colour. Low-end inkjets use three ink colours but produce a composite black that is often muddy. Four-color inkjets use black ink for pure black printing. Inkjet printers run the gamut from less than a hundred to a couple hundred dollars for home use to tens of thousands of dollars for commercial poster printers. Advantages Cheap and easy to refill cartridges Disadvantages Need special papers
  14. 14. Desktop publishing Using a desktop computer to produce high-quality printed output or camera-ready output for commercial printing. It requires a desktop publishing program, such as Adobe InDesign or QuarkXPress, a large monitor and laser printer. Advantages High quality outcome Disadvantages complicated to use