Techniques and technologies used in print production
ETCHING – HAND TECHNIQUE• Etching is used in modern manufacturing.• Etching is the process of applying strong acids or mordant (a substance usedto set dyes onto fabrics ) to cut into unprotected parts of a metal surface inorder to form a design.• It is widely used today, and one of the most important techniques in printproduction.• ADVANTAGES: the finished look is very good• DISADVANTAGE: it takes ages to produce
LINOCUT – HAND TECHNIQUE• Linocut is a print making technique that is used on relief surfaces• It is created by using a sharp knife, v shaped chisel or gouge.• The uncarved parts represent a ‘mirror image’ to show the printing• Linoleum sheet is inked with a roller and then impressed onto paper of fabric.• ADVANTAGES: softness of the material, so easy to produce• DISADVANTAGES: not so suitable for fine lines such as wood
SCREEN PRINT – HAND TECHNIQUE• The ink is applied directly to the surface to be printed.• A roller or squeegee is moved across the screen stencil, forcing or pumpingink past the threads of the woven mesh in the open areas.• It is also known as Screen Printing, silkscreen, seriography, and serigraph.• ADVANTAGES: screen printing allows many prints to be created before areapplication of ink is necessary, which makes screen printing very usefulcommercially• DISADVANTAGES: designs are limited and have to be simple
WOODCUT – HAND TECHNIQUE• Formally known as xylography• An image is carved into wood, in Europe most commonly used is beechwood.• The surface is covered with ink by rolling over the surface with an ink coveredroller.• ADVANTAGES: quick and easy to produce• DISADVANTAGES: hard to engrave small text
LITHOGRAPHY – HAND TECHNIQUE• Lithography is where you use a stone to print on a smooth surface.• Invented in 1796• Can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or another suitable material• ADVANTAGES: the images are sharp, clear and cheap to produce• DISADVANTAGES: complex materials to use and cannot print in smallnumbers
LETTERPRESS – MECHANICAL TECHNIQUE• Letterpress is the oldest form of printing.• In this method, a surface with raised letters is inked and pressed to thesurface of the printing substrate to reproduce an image in reverse. Typically,metal type has been used but other possibilities include carved wood or stoneblocks.• letterpress was the predominant printing method for 500 years.• ADVANTAGES: most versatile form of printing• DISADVANTAGES: slow process because each colour has to dry beforeanother can be added
GRAVURE – MECHANICAL TECHNIQUE• Gravure is a printing method in which an image is applied to a printingsubstrate by use of a metal plate mounted on a cylinder.• Unlike other processes, gravure uses a depressed or sunken surface for thedesired image.• The image to be reproduced is etched into the metal plate, sometimes withthe use of a laser .• The metal plate is bathed in ink during the process and then wiped cleanbefore application to the substrate.• ADVANTAGES: very good quality and good for long runs• DISADVANTAGES: not very good for short runs
PHOTOCOPYING – DIGITAL TECHNIQUE• A photographic reproduction of written, printed, or graphic work• Using a photocopier to create an exact copy of a document or artwork.• ADVANTAGES: cheaper than printing and can photocopy a lot of copies atonce• DISADVANTAGES: photocopier takes up a lot of space, and is veryexpensive.
LASER PRINTING – DIGITAL TECHNIQUE• A printer that uses a laser to produce an image on a rotating drum beforeelectrostatically transferring the image to paper.• ADVANTAGES: high printing speed, good print quality• DISADVANTAGES: costly, images are printed out slightly wet so need time todry.
INKJET – DIGITAL TECHNIQUE• Inkjet printing is a type of computer printing that creates a digital image bypropelling droplets of ink onto paper.• Inkjet printers are the most commonly used type of printer, and range fromsmall inexpensive consumer models to very large professional machines thatcan cost tens of thousands of dollars• ADVANTAGES: fast, colour is perfect• DISADVANTAGES: very expensive