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Graphic design 2

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Graphic design 2

  1. 1. Short history of type and print
  2. 2. What is typography? • The art and technique of arranging type and type design. • The arrangement of type involves the selection of typefaces, point size, line length, line spacing (leading), adjusting the spaces between groups of letters (tracking) and adjusting the space between pairs of letters (kerning).
  3. 3. Using type • Choice of font is the main part of using type. • Legibility is primarily the concern of the typeface designer, to ensure that each individual character is distinguishable from all other characters in the font. • Readability is primarily the concern of the typographer or information designer. It is the intended result of the complete process of presentation of textual material in order to communicate meaning as easily as possible. • Text set in lower case is more legible than text set all in upper case, apparently because lower case letter structures and word shapes are more distinctive.
  4. 4. Using type (continued) • Readability can also be compromised by letter spacing, word spacing, or leading that is too tight or too loose. It can be improved when generous vertical space separates lines of text, making it easier for the eye to distinguish one line from the next, or previous line. Poorly designed fonts and those that are too tightly or loosely fitted can also result in poor legibility. • Display typography is a potent element in graphic design, where there is less concern for readability and more potential for using type in an artistic manner. Type is combined with negative space, graphic elements and pictures, forming relationships and dialog between words and images. • Color and size of type elements are much more prevalent than in text typography. Most display typography exploits type at larger sizes, where the details of letter design are magnified. Color is used for its emotional effect in conveying the tone and nature of subject matter.
  5. 5. Paula Scher • Born in 1948 in Washington DC. • She studied at the Tyler School of Art in Philadelphia and the Corcoran College of Art and Design in Washington DC. • In the 1970s, she designed album covers for CBS Recordings. • She worked at Time Inc. before creating her own design firm called Koppel & Scher. • She designed the citibank logo and started the logo from thinking the t in citi looked like an umbrella. • Her works are mostly text and she designs her own type. • She believes in using type as design.
  6. 6. A Lesson on Typography • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Ki6rcXvUWP0
  7. 7. Printing • Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing. • Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns that was used widely throughout East Asia. It originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later on paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to before AD 220, and from Roman Egypt to the 4th century. • Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letter punches. Movable type allowed for much more flexible processes than hand copying or block printing.
  8. 8. Printing (continued) • Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. Printmaking normally covers only the process of creating prints with an element of originality, rather than just being a photographic reproduction of a painting. Each piece produced is not a copy but considered 'an original' since it is not a reproduction of another work of art and is technically (more correctly) known as an 'impression'. Printmaking (other than monotyping) is not chosen only for its ability to produce multiple copies, but rather for the unique qualities that each of the printmaking processes lends itself to. • Offset printing is a widely used printing technique where the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. When used in combination with the lithographic process, which is based on the repulsion of oil and water, the offset technique employs a flat (planographic) image carrier on which the image to be printed obtains ink from ink rollers, while the non-printing area attracts a film of water, keeping the non-printing areas ink-free.
  9. 9. History in Print • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=tnc72pgEvho

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