Print lo1 pro forma


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Print lo1 pro forma

  1. 1. Producing Print Based Media LO1 Henry Buckham
  2. 2. To do • Explain method in own words • When it was invented/by who (if information is available) • How the method works/what do you need to do to use this method • What does the method look like when used (include images) • What are the costs involved with using this method • How quickly the process can be done • Provide images to illustrate discussion • Reference at least one example with a image.
  3. 3. Hand Printing Methods
  4. 4. Etching Etching is a printing method that involves using a copper plate to print a design or a section of copy, by use of acid and a sharp knife. The plate is first coated with the acid that is usually known as the etching ground, and the design is then drawn in using the tool. The plate is then exposed to nitric acid which removes the parts of the plate not protected by the printing ground, which forms the pattern that was drawn in. These lines hold ink, so when the plate is applied to paper, the etched design will be inked on to make the finished print. The earliest known use of etching was in 1513 by Swiss artist Urs Graf who used iron plates instead of the now more widely used copper thanks to the lighter weight. Etching is a relatively cheap process and can be useful for mainly images and graphics in a publication, as copy would be very time consuming to etch into the ground. The costs would apply to acquiring the sheet metal for the base, the acid as the etching ground and finally the ink and tool to etch with.
  5. 5. Etching Etching produces very striking images that are composed of millions of tiny lines cut into the metal. The picture seen on the right was composed of such lines, that allows a lot of details to be presented in a precise manner that may be missed out on a larger scale print. Etching allows every detail to be captured as the artist envisions.
  6. 6. Linocut Linocut is a technique similar to etching but using a sheet of linoleum instead of metal. First used by the Die Brucke artists in Germany around 1905, the process involves cutting a design into a sheet of linoleum which is then completely inked. When pressed to a page, the raised areas (The uncarved lino) will press down onto the paper and print the carved image with the ink. Since there is no grain, using lino cut can yield some very artistic effects because of the precise nature that would be unobtainable with most of printing methods that are not as precise. However, linocut is only really suitable for smaller works due to the fragile nature of linoleum. This makes it useful for single pictures or graphics that would appear prominently on a finished piece.
  7. 7. Linocut As seen here, linocut allows for very bold and striking pieces with a lot of intricate and artistic precision, however, it is limited to small works, as lino is quite fragile and would likely break if attempting to print a large piece.
  8. 8. Comparison • In comparison, linocut and etching offer a similar way of printing mainly graphics and pictures, but linocut offers a much bolder product thanks to the softer material, making cuts easier and more precise. Etching however, makes use of a tool to cut out thousands of small lines that make up a picture, allowing a lot of artistic details to be represented clearly.
  9. 9. Mechanical Methods
  10. 10. Letterpress Letterpress is a method that involves a press and movable type – carved letters, numbers and symbols onto small blocks that can be arranged and altered to form type, be it sentences, paragraphs and headings. Letterpressed publications generally consist entirely of type but in the right hands, this method can produce some very spectacular typography thanks to the ability to strictly control the position and spacing of each character. This method was invented by Johannes Gutenberg in the mid 15th century and was widely used for books and other literature, bringing readable material into the hands of most ordinary folk as letterpress streamlined the printing process, where it was previously done by hand. This is a more expensive method as it would involve having an actual press machine, as well as all the individual character blocks to print with, which significantly raises the cost. However, the results that are produced with this method are of a very high standard, and neat typography is very easy to achieve with letterpress thanks to the precise nature.
  11. 11. Letterpress As seen here, letterpress can produce very regal and sophisticated design with an emphasis on type. The imprinting in particular really gives the product a 3D aspect and gives it a much higher quality finish.
  12. 12. Rotogravure Rotogravure is a process that involves engraving the image onto a cylinder, and then it is partially submerged in an ink basin which fills the engravings. It is then scraped by a doctor blade to remove excess ink and then the substrate is placed between the gravure cylinder and the impression roller, applying the print. This produces a very rough but detailed rolled piece with a variety of densities, that is mostly suited for large scale images and graphics, less so for copy and type. Rotogravure first saw use in the last quarter of the 9th century, when the similar method of photo transfer with light sensitive gelatin was discovered, which paved the way for more advanced printing techniques. The costs associated with this process will include both the machine itself and the gravure cylinder, which are made of high quality steel and plated with copper. The publisher would also have to account for the cost of the ink fountain, which would need a lot of ink for the cylinders to have a sufficient fill in the engravings.
  13. 13. Rotogravure As seen on the right, a portrait produced with rotogravure offers a variety of shades and densities which would be unobtainable with an older process such as lino cut, where all of the ink applied would be much stronger and create a bolder image without shades.
  14. 14. Comparison • Comparing these two methods, they are both suited for two different things (letterpress for type and rotogravure for graphics/pictures) and unsuitable for the other, but ofr their strengths they perform well, both achieving very high quality results. As well as that, they offer several benefits over other methods, with letterpress having a unique embossing technique that presses in the letters, and rotogravure can display many different shades and densities thanks to the rolling mechanism.
  15. 15. Digital Methods
  16. 16. Photocopying Photocopying is a printing procedure that involves making copies of paper documents, mostly with a technique called xerography, which utilises electrostatic charges on a light sensitive receptor to attract and transfer toner particles onto the paper to form a copied images. It is then heated so the toner sticks to the paper and does not run. First invented by Chester Carlson in 1938, as a way of finding a more efficient way of copying large amounts of documents. While originally a process that took a few minutes, modern photocopying takes mere seconds, and produces copies that are completely identical to the source material. This process is widespread and easy to do in the modern world, with machines using the method currently available. They can be found as combination printers which are more home office orientated, whereas large businesses where a lot of information is processed are more likely to have large dedicated photocopiers that can make many more copies in a shorter space of time.
  17. 17. Photocopying Seen on the right, photocopying is generally more suited for text copying rather than full page graphics and pictures. Doing so results in quite a grainy image, with the seams of where the toner was applied clearly visible and detracting heavily from the quality of the image.
  18. 18. Laser Printing Laser printing is a more modern application of digital printing that was first invented in 1971 by Gary Starkweather, who adapted and existing Xerox copier to create the first laser printer. The process works by using a laser to project the image onto a charged rotating drum. Particles of powdered ink (toner) are then electrostatically picked up into the charged areas, where they have not been exposed to the laser beam. The drum then prints the completed image onto paper and heats it to fuse the ink onto the paper. This process is much more powerful and quicker than the photocopying method it is derived from, taking only seconds to produce printed documents. Similar to photocopying, laser printing is a widely used and available method and there are many companies producing laser printers today. They are quick and easy to set up and don’t really require any prior knowledge, however one of the drawbacks of such a device is the high cost, higher than a photocopier or regular inkjet printer.
  19. 19. Laser Printing Documents or graphics printed with a laser printer are of a very high quality, losing almost no detail in the process. Despite this however, there is a large cost associated with laser printing thanks to the cost of the machines, and the extreme difficulty of trying to replicate the process without the aid of such a machine.
  20. 20. Comparison • Comparing both photocopying and laser printing results in both processes having strengths and weaknesses. Photocopying is able to replicate both text and pictures, but very large graphics often come out grainy and low quality. Laser printing prints both to a very high standard. The drawback however is the cost – a photocopier is in most cases cheaper than a laser printer, with the cheapness at the expense of quality.
  21. 21. Print Methods Situations
  22. 22. To Do • For each of the following scenarios, you need to decide on the best printing method to use. • You need to explain your choice of method considering technical and aesthetic qualities, cost, speed and the skills and knowledge required.
  23. 23. 100 high quality wedding invitations. • Your client wants very high quality wedding invitation and is prepared for them to cost a lot of money and take time to produce. The invitations will be on high quality paper. The invitations will only have text on them.
  24. 24. Decision and justification For this brief I think that letterpress would work the best. This is because the client has only requested text on their product, which is best suited for a process that deals only with type and not graphics, which is exactly what letterpress is. Also, this process has quite a nice indenting effect from the character blocks, which really adds to the high class feeling, fitting as they are meant to be for a wedding. Letterpress is a process that takes a little longer than others as the letters have to be arranged individually on the printer, which fits in with the client’s brief in that they are willing to wait some time for them to be produce. The process is also one that requires some technical knowledge to undertake and requires specialised equipment, which may add to the costs. This also fits in as the client is willing to spend a little more money to get them to a very high standard.
  25. 25. 50 special edition greetings cards. • Your client, a talented local artist, wants to produce small print runs of greetings cards. They do not want to use electronic printing methods. They need a cheap and simple method of printing so they can produce small runs of different designs but it needs to look arty and handmade when it’s finished.
  26. 26. Decision and justification For this brief I think that linocut would be the best printing method thanks to the inexpensive materials and relatively simple process. Linoleum sheets are very easily acquired from hardware and furniture shops and can be pierced with a variety of tools, not requiring any specialised equipment to cut in the design. It is also a method that has very bold and artistic results, fitting in with the artist’s need of different designs for test runs. Linocut uses no electronic aid so it fits with the brief’s line of no electronic printing methods. Because of the relatively weak material, the artist will be able to do lots of different designs without wasting too much time or resources.
  27. 27. 3000 flyers for coffee shop. • You client has a one week only special coming up and wants 3000 basic, single colour flyers to promote it. As the flyers will be given out in the street they only need to be cheap, in fact, the cheaper the better. They also need to be produced quickly.
  28. 28. Decision and justification For this brief, I believe that the photocopying method would be most suited to producing a large amount of simple works. The client wants 3000 flyers printed and likely in a short amount of time, which is what a photocopier is capable of, instead of utilizing a more expensive printing press. The flyers are simple and only have one colour, so no complicated settings or configurations are needed for this print run. And due to the fact that they will be produced on standard grade paper, the costs will be kept down as the material is cheap and easily available. Photocopying equipment is readily available to purchase and can be done at home or in the office.
  29. 29. 100 copies of the village news letter. • The parish council want to produce a monthly news letter for the village. It will be a single side of A4. It will mostly contain text but might occasionally have a black and white picture. It will be given away for free so should be cheap. The council would be interested in printing it themselves to save money.
  30. 30. Decision and justification For this brief I believe that laser printing would be the optimal method of printing the newspapers. It is a quick, cheap and easy method and can be accomplished with only a laser printer, not requiring an expensive printing press of complicated procedure. Each copy will be cheaper than a copy that is produced on higher quality paper, with each copy equal to about 15p thanks to the standard grade used. Since the publication will only consist of text and simple pictures, a more advanced printing method is not really required for this brief, which will keep costs down and help the council to publish the paper in-house using a laser printer.
  31. 31. 10,000 copies of a fashion magazine • WM Fashion want to produce a new catalogue to send out to its current customers as well as its existing ones. It needs to be high quality colour printing but it needs to have a low per copy cost.
  32. 32. Decision and justification For this brief I think that laser printing would be the best choice. This is because the client requires many copies of a very high quality, which is what laser printing excels at in being able to print many copies in a short amount of time while still retaining a high image quality. Because the printer will be using smaller size paper than a printing press, and works on a smaller scale, the costs will be much lower than if it was printed on a larger scale. However, the client may be using a higher quality paper stock thanks to the intended purpose, which will raise prices considerably.