Earthwork

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Earthwork

  1. 1. EARTHWORK Masterplan, Design and Authority’s Requirement Ir. Abdul Aziz Abas P.Eng, C.Eng, Int.PE 1
  2. 2. PREFACE EARTHWORK Preparation for life… • As a module of the Integrated Design Project course for the Bachelor of Civil Engineering programme, Faculty of Civil Engineering, UiTM, Shah Alam This program will provide basic overview of all aspects of Earthwork planning and design, guidelines, legislative and regulatory requirements Feb 2010 2
  3. 3. PREFACE EARTHWORK Benefit • UNDERSTANDING the subject of Civil Engineering in wider perspective, inter-relation with other subjects influencing the performance of Engineering works and challenges. • ACQUIRRING cutting edge practical design knowledge & skills that last forever in the world of ever-changing infrastructural engineering. • DEVELOPING your engineering knowledge significantly and permanently. • PROVIDING your dashing factor (distinguish factor) for better chance of employment upon graduation. • EXPAND your employment versatility in an ever-changing marketplace. • WINNING at the office and in daily job with the power of practical skill. • ADVANCING your career as an Engineer. • GAINING LEVERAGE by demonstrating knowledge of engineering in a multi-disciplinary context. Feb 2010 3
  4. 4. EARTHWORK 1. Introduction • Definition & General Understanding 2. Masterplan & Design • Planning of Earthwork & Early Guiding Principle Scoping of Design Consideration • Guidelines & Preliminary 3. Preliminary Design Design • Design Criteria & Detail 4. Detail Design Design 5. Authorities • Compliance & Authority Approval 6. Construction • Control of Earthworks 7. Post - Construction • Certificate of Completion And Compliance TABLE OF CONTENTS Feb 2010 4
  5. 5. EARTHWORK 1 INTRODUCTION 5 Feb 2010 5
  6. 6. 1 INTRODUCTION EARTHWORK Definition of Earthwork Earthworks are engineering works created through the moving of massive quantities of soil or unformed rock. Feb 2010 6
  7. 7. 1 INTRODUCTION EARTHWORK Typical Earthwork Development Typical earthworks include Platforms, roads, dams, dikes, cannal, bunding, and berms ("noise mounds"). Roadwork Football field Agriculture Recreation Tourism / Housing Landscape Feb 2010 7
  8. 8. 1 INTRODUCTION EARTHWORK Problems Associated With Earthwork Sinkhole High tide 8 Slope Failure Feb 2010 8
  9. 9. EARTHWORK 2 Masterplan & Design Guiding Principle Feb 2010 9
  10. 10. 2 MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE EARTHWORK Objectives To establish the overall earthworks for the viability of the project and to assist on planning of landuse, compliance with prevailing guidelines and laws. • Enhance Early Scoping • Minimize Scope Changes • Provide base platforms & Layout Plan • Reduce Conflicts/ Disputes • Costs Plan 2 Masterplan & Design Feb 2010 10
  11. 11. 2 MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE EARTHWORK • Coastal Development Typical Development Condition Influence by high & low tides • Soft Ground Development Influence by poor soil condition • Low Land Development Influence by Highest Flood Level • High Land Development Influence by slopes’ risk Low risk, slopes < 25 deg 11 High risk, slopes > 25 deg 11 Feb 2010 11
  12. 12. 1 MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE EARTHWORK Typical Earthwork Development – Compliance Controlled Earthwork Centralised facility Slopes turfed Silt trap / rubbish trap Feb 2010 12
  13. 13. 1 MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE EARTHWORK Typical Earthwork Development – Non-Compliance Uncontrolled Earthwork No sediment / silt trap Earth not graded Feb 2010 13
  14. 14. 2 MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE EARTHWORK Planning & Design Benchmarks A. Client’s Requirement • Development Master Plan • Terms Of Reference B. Authority’s Requirement • Compliance to local council conditions & requirements (Development Order) • Design Guidelines • Statutory Requirement 2 14 Feb 2010 14
  15. 15. N 2 MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE EARTHWORK Development Masterplan • Development Landuse determined by Masterplanner • Engineer to advise on platform & drainage pattern and other aspects of engineering • Engineer to balance cut & fill design (wherever possible) • Engineer to minimise import earth • Engineer to establish Term Of Reference • Engineer to establish Specification • Engineer to obtain approvals • Engineer to supervise construction Commercial Existing Development Ggreen / Forest Institution 15 Industrial Typical Development Masterplan Residential Feb 2010 15 Layout
  16. 16. 2 MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE EARTHWORK Infrastructure Influencing Earthwork Design Source: MSMA Drainage System Detention Pond Drainage System – Main Stream Feb 2010 16
  17. 17. 2 MASTERPLAN & DESIGN GUIDING PRINCIPLE EARTHWORK Infrastructure Influencing Earthwork Design - Generally flat area with only prominent highest ground -Gravity Flow Water Supply is most possible Water Supply System Feb 2010 17
  18. 18. EARTHWORK 3 Preliminary Design Feb 2010 18
  19. 19. 3 PRELIMINARY DESIGN EARTHWORK Confirm Site Location Identification of correct site & Project Boundary “CRUCIAL” • Obtain CP from Survey Dept. • Check lot numbers • Check boundaries Typical Cadestral Plan – Obtained from Land Survey Department Feb 2010 19
  20. 20. 3 PRELIMINARY DESIGN EARTHWORK Obtaining Confirmed Requirements & Data • Approved Development Layout Masterplan Architect or Town Planner / JPBD • Development Order Local Council • Topographical Survey Land Surveyor • Highest Flood Level DID • Soil Investigation Geotechnical Engineer • Local Guidelines Local Council / Authority / Agency Feb 2010 20
  21. 21. 3 PRELIMINARY DESIGN EARTHWORK Site Reconnaissance • Mandatory site visit • To confirm site location and development boundaries • To familiarize with the site geographical condition • To identify adjacent development, Access, etc. • To observe & assess site constraints • To have general idea of existing & future design system • To gather information about flooding history Feb 2010 21
  22. 22. 3 PRELIMINARY DESIGN EARTHWORK Assess Site Constraints / Issues Swampy area Soft soil Main river system No pollution permitted Control flows from development Low laying areas & Sg. Balok atFlooding issue Coastal Road Raise platform or bunding? Tidal influence Feb 2010 22
  23. 23. 3 PRELIMINARY DESIGN EARTHWORK Objectives SOIL INVESTIGATION • To identify general sub-soil profile i.e. suitability • To provide detail picture of soil stratigraphy & geological settings i.e. extend of soft & hard underlayings, ground water Sg. Balok at Coastal Road • To obtaining representative geotechnical parameters of various sub-soil strata for engineering design i.e. N-Values Feb 2010 23
  24. 24. EARTHWORK 4 Detail Design Feb 2010 24
  25. 25. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Design Guiding Principles • Integrate the design platform levels with existing developments. • Design platform levels shall tie in with the roads. • All Slope formations shall be kept within the plot boundaries. • Achieve an almost balanced cut and fill volume within the development • Establishing preliminary platform levels based on development scheme requirements, infrastructure and utilities. Sg. Balok at Coastal Road Feb 2010 25
  26. 26. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Design Procedure • Design Criteria • Study Project Layout (Development Plan) • Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan • Propose Platform Levels • Compute Volume of Cut & Fill • Propose Retaining Structure Feb 2010 26
  27. 27. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Design Procedure • Design Criteria • Study Project Layout (Development Plan) • Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan • Propose Platform Levels • Compute Volume of Cut & Fill • Propose Retaining Structure Feb 2010 27
  28. 28. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Design Criteria • Clearing, grubbing, stripping top soil, cut & fill, compact, trimming, turfing, soil test for FGL • Embankment in swamp or soft ground, Height ≥ 1.5m, cross-slopes ≤ 1V : 3H 1 3 • Gradient for cut slope, 1 : 1.2 1 1.2 Sg. Balok at Coastal Road • Gradient for fill slope, 1 : 2 1 2 • Height of slopes, 3m intervals with toe, berm & intercepting drains Inteceptor • Layers of 300mm intervals, compacted to 95% (Cohesive soil) or Berm 3m 100% (Cohesionless soil) of max Dry Density. Ref BS1377 – 4.5kg rammer method 3m Toe Feb 2010 28
  29. 29. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Design Criteria • All slopes closed turf Tg Gelang • Min Formation Platform Level, 1m above Highest Flood Level or EHW (Coastal) Sg. Balok at Coastal Road • Temporary drains to main drain shall pass Silt Trap (Sediment trap) • Wash Through before public road • Temporary drains, design for 1 in 5 years, checked for 1 in 10 years • Min 1 no Temporary Bench Mark established Feb 2010 29
  30. 30. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Design Criteria Sg. Balok at Coastal Road Feb 2010 30
  31. 31. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Design Options For Cut Slopes Feb 2010 31
  32. 32. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Design Options For Fill Slopes Feb 2010 32
  33. 33. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Design Procedure • Design Criteria • Study Project Layout (Development Plan) • Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan • Propose Platform Levels • Compute Volume of Cut & Fill • Balancing Cut & Fill Volume Feb 2010 33
  34. 34. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Study Project Layout (Development Plan) Feb 2010 34
  35. 35. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Assessment of Available Survey Information Slopes direction Slopes direction Swampy +2m to 3m Potential high Ground for Water Hilly 80m Supply Tank Existing Existing +5m to 9m +5.5m Existing +3m Slopes direction Feb 2010 35
  36. 36. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Design Procedure • Design Criteria • Study Project Layout (Development Plan) • Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan • Propose Platform Levels • Compute Volume of Cut & Fill • Propose Retaining Structure Feb 2010 36
  37. 37. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Assessment of Available Survey Information Slopes direction Fill Slopes direction Swampy +2m to 3m Cut Potential high Ground for Water Hilly 80m Supply Tank Existing Existing +5m to 9m +5.5m Existing +3m Slopes direction Feb 2010 37
  38. 38. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Design Procedure • Design Criteria • Study Project Layout (Development Plan) • Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan • Propose Platform Levels • Propose Retaining Structure • Balancing Cut & Fill Volume Feb 2010 38
  39. 39. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Assessment of Minimum Platform Level • HFL = 2.2 m ODL • Freeboard = 1.0m • Drainage Gradient = 1.5m • Recommended Min. Platform Level = 4.7m ODL Existing Platform Level at Project Site Varies from PL+5m to PL+9m Swampy and Low Lying Level at Upstream = PL+2m to PL3m Highest Flood Level (JPS record or ever known) Max. Proposed Platform Level Formation Min. Freeboard = +1m Highest Flood Level = +2.2m ODL Water body Feb 2010 39
  40. 40. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Conceptual Platform Platform Level to be above Highest Flood Level Feb 2010 40
  41. 41. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Proposed Platform Levels Cut area Fill area Follow drainage pattern • Min Platform Level = 4.7m Highest Platform Level Determined by Cut & Balance Analysis Notes: 1. All levels are in meter O.D.L Feb 2010 41
  42. 42. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Proposed Platform Levels Typical Cross-Sections Notes: 1. All levels are in meter O.D.L Feb 2010 42
  43. 43. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Proposed Platform Levels Typical Building Platforms Feb 2010 43
  44. 44. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Design Procedure • Design Criteria • Study Project Layout (Development Plan) • Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan • Propose Platform Levels • Compute Volume of Cut & Fill • Propose Retaining Structure Feb 2010 44
  45. 45. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Design Procedure Principle • To obtain balance cut & Fill (If possible) • Too much access cut material – Difficult to dispose • Too much fill material - Difficult to obtain borrow source & Cost Feb 2010 45
  46. 46. Methods 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Design Procedure • Grid System Method • Large area or excavation • Using area method calculation • Land development • Computer software – triangulation interpolation (more accurate & ease of modeling) • Require spot levels survey • Cross-section Method • Longitudinal “strip” profile • Used for road, pipeline, drainage constructions • Require strip survey Feb 2010 46
  47. 47. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Proposed Platform Levels Volume of Cut & Fill 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 GRID SYSTEM METHOD A B • To obtain large area of excavation C • Square rectangular and levels at each cross-sections established D • Establish datum E • Calculate volume of existing ground F • Calculate volume of proposed platform • Difference s constitute cut or fill volume Feb 2010 47
  48. 48. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Proposed Platform Levels Methodology Volume of Cut & Fill Average areas of column grids 1 & 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 A B C D E X F Average areas of row grids A & B X <> 10m to for accuracy (undulating areas) X X = 5m gives accurate figures (undulating areas) Existing levels X > 10m for flat areas & proposed levels X = 50m for large area / Masterplan purposes Based on spots & interpolation Feb 2010 48
  49. 49. 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 4 10 DETAIL DESIGN 7 10 8 10 9 10 10 EARTHWORK A E 10 10 10 88 55 33 33 22 22 33 3 Grid System P 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 66 55 55 55 55 5 10 C 250 175 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F 0 0 0 -212.5 -275 -275 -300 -250 -200 P 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 5 5 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 E 10 10 10 9 9 5 5 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 B E 10 10 10 9 9 5 5 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 P 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 5 5 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 C 325 300 212.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 F 0 0 0 -25 -250 -250 -247.5 -245 -195 P 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 Legend E 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 5 5 3 3 5 5 3 3 4 4 4 C E 10 10 19 10 10 9 9 5 5 3 3 5 5 3 3 4 4 4 P 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.9 E Existing 10 C 325 500 225 50 0 0 0 0 0 P Proposed F 0 0 0 0 -150 -150 -115 -105 -80 P 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 C Cut E 9 8 8 7 7 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 F Fill D E 9 8 8 7 7 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 P 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 10 C 250 162.5 137.5 75 25 0 0 30 30 F 0 0 0 0 0 0 -10 0 0 P 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 E 9 8 8 7.5 7.5 8 8 7 7 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 E E 9 8 8 7.5 7.5 8 8 7 7 7 7 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 P 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 10 C 225 162.5 137.5 137.5 162.5 100 15 30 30 F 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 P 6 66 66 66 5.5 5.5 55 55 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 F E8 88 77 77 77 77 55 55 55 5 All dimensions are in meters Total Area = 50.02 Acres Total Cut = 4,072.50 CuM Spoil @ 20% = 814.50 CuM Proposed Platform Levels Available Fill = 3,258.00 CuM Total Fill = 3,335.00 CuM Volume of Cut & Fill To import Fill = 77.00 CuM Access Cut = Nil CuM Feb 2010 49
  50. 50. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Design Procedure • Design Criteria • Study Project Layout (Development Plan) • Study Project Survey Drawing In Conjunction With Dev Plan • Propose Platform Levels • Compute Volume of Cut & Fill • Propose Retaining Structure Feb 2010 50
  51. 51. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Design Procedure Earth Retaining Structure Standards Used in Design Feb 2010 51
  52. 52. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Split Levels Feb 2010 52
  53. 53. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Earth Retaining Structure Feb 2010 53
  54. 54. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Earth Retaining Structure Feb 2010 54
  55. 55. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Earth Retaining Structure Feb 2010 55
  56. 56. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Earth Retaining Structure Feb 2010 56
  57. 57. 4 DETAIL DESIGN EARTHWORK Earth Retaining Structure – Typical Detail Feb 2010 57
  58. 58. EARTHWORK 5 Authority Compliance & Approvals Feb 2010 58
  59. 59. 5 AUTHORITY Compliance & Approvals EARTHWORK Governing Law Earthworks regulation and approval is under the jurisdiction of Local Council. Feb 2010 59
  60. 60. 5 AUTHORITY Compliance & Approvals EARTHWORK Submission Checklist √ Copy of Letter of Appointment As Consulting Engineer √ Copy of D.O. Letter from Planning Dept. √ Copy of Land Title / S & P Agreement √ Earthwork Plan (duly endorsed by PE) √ Copy of Approved D.O. Plan / Development Layout by Architect √ Copy of Quit Rent of Current Year √ Site Photos of present condition Copy of Approval Letter From JKR For Road System √ Or Prove Of Submission Copy of Approval Letter From JPS For Drainage System √ Or Prove Of Submission √ Copy of Approval Letter of Main Infra / Main Earthwork (if app.) √ Copy of Geological Mapping (for hill dev) & Erosion Control Plan Report Feb 2010 60
  61. 61. 5 AUTHORITY Compliance & Approvals EARTHWORK Submission Process Flow SUBMITTING PERSON No JPS Yes JKR Approval PTG OSC One Stop Centre LC Feb 2010 61
  62. 62. EARTHWORK 6 Construction Feb 2010 62
  63. 63. 6 CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORK Earthwork Construction • Identification of project site • Planning of temporary drainage system • Access and wash through location • Detention ponds / silt traps • Project office & facility • Construction of Hoarding • Observe all laws pertaining to construction • Plan, design, manage all temporary works • Earthwork construction & supervision Feb 2010 63
  64. 64. 6 CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORK Earthwork Construction • Review costruction programme • Control & Monitor Feb 2010 64
  65. 65. 6 CONSTRUCTION GUIDELINES FOR CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY EARTHWORK 1 2 3 4 5 6 Feb 2010 65
  66. 66. 6 CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORK Site Supervision to comply ; Quality Control • General Instruction • Construction Drawings • Specifications Contract Document • Bills of Quantities • Compliance to Authority’s requirement • Compaction 95% max of dry density @ BS 1377 Building footprints, roads & services corridor, runways, etc • Compaction 75% Building footprints but to allow Suspended Floor slab design Area not subject to buildings construction i.e fields, landscape, etc • Each layer ≤ 200mm thick • For road sub-base, soaked CBR value ≥ 30 for 95% consolidation Feb 2010 66
  67. 67. 6 CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORK Soil Compaction Selection of types of compaction machinery Vs types of soil Grid roller Smooth wheeled roller Sheepsfoot roller Feb 2010 67
  68. 68. 6 CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORK Site Clearing Work July 2009 68 Feb 2010 68
  69. 69. 6 CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORK In-land Development Feb 2010 69
  70. 70. 6 CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORK Low Land Earthwork Platforming Feb 2010 70
  71. 71. 6 CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORK Mandatory Hoarding Feb 2010 71
  72. 72. 6 CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORK Installation of Mandatory Paver Blocks at Entrance of Construction Site Feb 2010 72
  73. 73. 6 CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORK Mandatory Wash Through Feb 2010 73
  74. 74. 6 CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORK Installation of Geosynthetic Materials For Earthwork in Soft Ground Feb 2010 74
  75. 75. 6 CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORK Cut Slopes Formation With Closed Turf Feb 2010 75
  76. 76. 6 CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORK Installation of Geomembrane to prevent ground contamination @ solid waste disposal 76 Feb 2010 76
  77. 77. 6 CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORK Urban Construction - Completed Earthwork Being CloseTurfed – Final Stage Feb 2010 77
  78. 78. EARTHWORK 7 Post - Construction Feb 2010 78
  79. 79. 7 POST - CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORK Inspection & As-Built Documents • Engineer to carry out confirmatory Soil Investigation to verify full compliance i.e. Compaction, Soil Stabilization, etc. • Land Surveyor to survey As-Built earthworks platforms to verify full compliance pertaining to FGL or PL. • Land Surveyor & Engineer to certify As-Built survey drawings • Engineer Review Construction Drawings & Correct to As-Built Drawings • Engineer updating As-Built information not covered i.e. Authority’s requirement not spelt out in Construction Drawings, V.O. • Engineer to ensure all mandatory dues to Authority are complied • Engineer arranged mandatory inspections with JPS, JKR, LC, etc to facilitate handing over works & recommendation for CCC Feb 2010 79
  80. 80. 7 POST - CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORK CCC Process Flow SUBMITTING PERSON (SP) No JPS Yes JKR Recommendation PTG LC PSP Principal Submitting Person PSP Issue CCC Feb 2010 80
  81. 81. 7 POST - CONSTRUCTION EARTHWORK Post - CCC • Issue Certificate Of Completion & Compliance • Defects Liability Period. Generally 1 to 1.5 years • Issue Certificate of Completion After Defects • Final Account • Total Completion of Project Feb 2010 81
  82. 82. Thank You Terima Kasih July 2009 82
  83. 83. Questions & Answers July 2009 83

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