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INVENTORY MANAGEMENT<br />HYDERALI C.K<br />106004<br />
INTRODUCTION<br />Significant part of the current asset<br />Large amount of inventory leads to considerable lapse of fund...
Cont………..<br />Inventory Control   measure and regulate  to predetermine  <br />     -size for order or production, <br />...
Nature of inventories<br />Raw material<br />Work in process<br />Finished goods<br />
NEED TO HOLD INVENTORIES<br />Transaction motive(smooth production)<br />Precautionary motive(demand)<br />Production moti...
PRODUCTION CYCLE<br />Time span between introduction raw material to the conversion into the finished product <br />
OBJECTIVE OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT<br />To meet unforeseen future demand due to variation in forecast figures and actual fi...
Cont……..<br />To gain economy of production or purchase in lots.<br />To reduce loss due to changes in prices of inventory...
Cont……..<br />To balance the stock out cost/opportunity cost due to loss of sales against the costs of inventory.<br />To ...
Optimum level of inventory<br />It lies between two danger point,i.e between excessive and inadequate level<br />
Major danger in the overinvesment<br />Unnecessary tie-up of firm’s fund and loss of profit<br />Excessive carrying cost<b...
Major danger in the inadequate level<br />Production hold-up<br />Failure to meet delivery commitment<br />
Effective inventory management<br />Continues supply of raw material to facilitate production<br />Maintain sufficient sto...
Cont……..<br />Minimise the carrying cost and time<br />Control investment in inventories and keep it an optimum level<br />
Inventory management techniques<br />Aim to maximise the shareholder wealth <br />For efficient inventory management, we h...
Economic order quantity<br />ordering materials whenever stock     	reaches the reorder point<br />It tells how production...
Ordering cost<br />It is the entire cost to acquire the raw material(supplies).<br />It include<br />       -Requisitionin...
Carrying cost<br />It is the cost incurred to maintain the given level of inventory<br />It include<br />        -Warehous...
Ordering and carrying cost trade off<br />Optimum level of inventory referred to EOQ<br />To determine EOQ-three approache...
Trial and error approach<br />Assumptions <br />      -known annual requirement<br />      -steady usage<br />      -order...
Example – illustrating the trial and error  approach<br />Estimated annual requirement, A =1200unit<br />Purchasing cost p...
Total cost in the various orders <br />
Inference from the TC table<br />OrderTotal cost     <br />1.For single order(once in year)             637.5<br />2.12 or...
Order formula approach <br />It is more easier  way compared to trial and error approach <br />Assumption<br />     -carry...
Cont…………<br />O=ordering cost per order<br />A=Total annual requirement<br />Q=order size<br />Per unit carrying cost=c<br...
Cont……..<br />Average inventory         =Q/2<br />TCC(Total carrying cost)=(Q/2)Xc<br />TC(Total cost)  =TOC+TCC<br />TC  ...
Inference from the equation<br />For larger quantity order =carrying cost    								increases<br />                      ...
Cont……….<br />EOQ should lie between larger & lower quantity order<br />So EOQ = differentiate TC and equate to zero<br />...
In the earlier problem<br />A=1200<br />O=37.5<br />c=1<br />EOQ=((2AO)/c)^.5<br />            =((2X1200X37.5)/1)^.5<br />...
Graphical method<br />Vertical axis    =costs<br />                                -carrying cost (TCC)<br />             ...
Cont……<br />Tc (Total Cost)<br />Carrying Cost (Q/2)H<br />Cost (Rs.)<br />DS/Q (Ordering Cost)<br />EOQ<br />Order Quanti...
Cont……<br />Carrying cost increases with increase order size, because of  large have to be maintained<br />Ordering cost d...
Quantity discount<br />Supplier offer discount for large order size (above EOQ)<br />Net return=discount savings –addition...
Example<br />d=discount rate (.005)<br />Discount on savings=dXPXA=(.005X50X1200)<br />                                   ...
Cont……….<br />Additional carrying cost=(cq/2)-(cQ/2)<br />                                            =c/2(q-Q)<br />     ...
Cont……<br />Net return=[dPA+ savings on   - additional <br />                                      discount]       carryin...
Important Terms<br />Minimum Level – It is the minimum stock to be maintained for smooth production.<br />Maximum Level – ...
Case study of inventory control (ABC)<br />Several types of inventories are there in ABC<br />Classify the inventories int...
Cont…….<br />ABC analysis concentrate on important items<br />    =Control by important exception(CIE)<br />Classified in ...
Step involved in implementing the ABC analysis<br />Classify ,determine expected use & price of the inventories<br />Deter...
ABC analysis table<br />
Inference <br />Assumption =1&2 ,3,4&5,6&7 fall in the same category<br />1&2=item    A<br />3,4&5=item B<br />6&7    =ite...
                          Thank you<br />
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  1. 1. INVENTORY MANAGEMENT<br />HYDERALI C.K<br />106004<br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION<br />Significant part of the current asset<br />Large amount of inventory leads to considerable lapse of fund<br />Imperative to manage to avoid unnecessary investment <br />
  3. 3. Cont………..<br />Inventory Control measure and regulate to predetermine <br /> -size for order or production, <br /> -safety stock<br /> - minimum level of order<br /> - maximum level of order<br />
  4. 4. Nature of inventories<br />Raw material<br />Work in process<br />Finished goods<br />
  5. 5. NEED TO HOLD INVENTORIES<br />Transaction motive(smooth production)<br />Precautionary motive(demand)<br />Production motive (price)<br />
  6. 6. PRODUCTION CYCLE<br />Time span between introduction raw material to the conversion into the finished product <br />
  7. 7. OBJECTIVE OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT<br />To meet unforeseen future demand due to variation in forecast figures and actual figures.<br />To meet the customer requirement timely, effectively, efficiently and smoothly <br />To smoothen the production process.<br />To facilitate intermittent production of several products on the same facility.<br />
  8. 8. Cont……..<br />To gain economy of production or purchase in lots.<br />To reduce loss due to changes in prices of inventory items.<br />To meet the time lag for transportation of goods.<br />To balance various costs of inventory such as order cost or set up cost and inventory carrying cost<br />
  9. 9. Cont……..<br />To balance the stock out cost/opportunity cost due to loss of sales against the costs of inventory.<br />To minimize losses due to deterioration, obsolescence, damage etc. <br />
  10. 10. Optimum level of inventory<br />It lies between two danger point,i.e between excessive and inadequate level<br />
  11. 11. Major danger in the overinvesment<br />Unnecessary tie-up of firm’s fund and loss of profit<br />Excessive carrying cost<br />Risk of liquidity<br />
  12. 12. Major danger in the inadequate level<br />Production hold-up<br />Failure to meet delivery commitment<br />
  13. 13. Effective inventory management<br />Continues supply of raw material to facilitate production<br />Maintain sufficient stock of raw materials in periods of short supply and anticipate price changes<br />Maintain sufficient finished goods inventory for smooth sales operation, and efficient customer service<br />
  14. 14. Cont……..<br />Minimise the carrying cost and time<br />Control investment in inventories and keep it an optimum level<br />
  15. 15. Inventory management techniques<br />Aim to maximise the shareholder wealth <br />For efficient inventory management, we have to answer<br /> -how much should be ordered ? (ans;EOQ)<br /> -when should it be ordered ? (ans;reorder point)<br />
  16. 16. Economic order quantity<br />ordering materials whenever stock reaches the reorder point<br />It tells how production to be schedule<br /> optimum level of inventory involves two types of cost<br /> 1.ordering cost<br /> 2.carrying cost<br />
  17. 17. Ordering cost<br />It is the entire cost to acquire the raw material(supplies).<br />It include<br /> -Requisitioning<br /> -order placing<br /> -Transportation<br /> -Receiving, inspecting and storing<br /> -clerical and staff<br />
  18. 18. Carrying cost<br />It is the cost incurred to maintain the given level of inventory<br />It include<br /> -Warehousing<br /> -Handling<br /> -clerical and staff<br /> -Insurance<br /> -Deterioration and obsolescene<br />
  19. 19. Ordering and carrying cost trade off<br />Optimum level of inventory referred to EOQ<br />To determine EOQ-three approaches<br /> -Trial and error approach<br /> -Formula approach<br /> -Graphical approach<br />
  20. 20. Trial and error approach<br />Assumptions <br /> -known annual requirement<br /> -steady usage<br /> -ordering and carrying cost to be constant through the entire period <br />
  21. 21. Example – illustrating the trial and error approach<br />Estimated annual requirement, A =1200unit<br />Purchasing cost per unit, P(Rs) =50<br />Ordering cost (per order),O(Rs) =37.50<br />Carrying cost per unit,c(Re) =1<br />
  22. 22. Total cost in the various orders <br />
  23. 23. Inference from the TC table<br />OrderTotal cost <br />1.For single order(once in year) 637.5<br />2.12 order (once in a month) 500<br />3.4 order(once in every 3 month) 300<br />i.e.the third option is the most economic<br />
  24. 24. Order formula approach <br />It is more easier way compared to trial and error approach <br />Assumption<br /> -carrying cost per unit constant<br /> -ordering cost per order fixed<br />
  25. 25. Cont…………<br />O=ordering cost per order<br />A=Total annual requirement<br />Q=order size<br />Per unit carrying cost=c<br />Number of order=A/Q<br />TOC(Total order cost)=(A/Q)XO<br />
  26. 26. Cont……..<br />Average inventory =Q/2<br />TCC(Total carrying cost)=(Q/2)Xc<br />TC(Total cost) =TOC+TCC<br />TC =(A/Q)XO + (Q/2)Xc<br />
  27. 27. Inference from the equation<br />For larger quantity order =carrying cost increases<br /> =ordering cost decreases<br />For lower quantity order=carrying cost decreases<br /> =ordering cost increase<br />
  28. 28. Cont……….<br />EOQ should lie between larger & lower quantity order<br />So EOQ = differentiate TC and equate to zero<br />TC =(A/Q)XO + (Q/2)Xc<br />EOQ=-(AO)/Q^2+c/2=0<br />c/2=(AO)/Q^2<br />EOQ=Q=((2AO)/c)^.5<br />
  29. 29. In the earlier problem<br />A=1200<br />O=37.5<br />c=1<br />EOQ=((2AO)/c)^.5<br /> =((2X1200X37.5)/1)^.5<br /> =300<br />
  30. 30. Graphical method<br />Vertical axis =costs<br /> -carrying cost (TCC)<br /> -ordering cost (TOC)<br /> -Total cost (TC)<br />Horizontal axis =order size (Q)<br />
  31. 31. Cont……<br />Tc (Total Cost)<br />Carrying Cost (Q/2)H<br />Cost (Rs.)<br />DS/Q (Ordering Cost)<br />EOQ<br />Order Quantity Size (Q)<br />
  32. 32. Cont……<br />Carrying cost increases with increase order size, because of large have to be maintained<br />Ordering cost decline with increase in order size, because larger order size means lesser no of order<br />Total cost has the behaviour of both ordering cost and carrying cost<br />EOQ=deviating point of TC<br />
  33. 33. Quantity discount<br />Supplier offer discount for large order size (above EOQ)<br />Net return=discount savings –additional carrying cost<br />If return +ve = can avail the discount offer <br />If return –ve= order size should be EOQ level<br />
  34. 34. Example<br />d=discount rate (.005)<br />Discount on savings=dXPXA=(.005X50X1200)<br /> =300<br />Savings on the ordering cost=(OA/Q)-(OA/q)<br />Here Q=EOQ & q=discount quantity(400)<br />=O[A/Q-A/q]<br />=37.5[1200/300-1200/400]<br /> =37.5<br />
  35. 35. Cont……….<br />Additional carrying cost=(cq/2)-(cQ/2)<br /> =c/2(q-Q)<br /> =1/2(400-300)<br /> =50<br />
  36. 36. Cont……<br />Net return=[dPA+ savings on - additional <br /> discount] carrying cost<br /> =(300+37.5)-50<br /> =287.5<br />Here net return is +ve= firm should order 400<br /> unit<br />
  37. 37. Important Terms<br />Minimum Level – It is the minimum stock to be maintained for smooth production.<br />Maximum Level – It is the level of stock, beyond which a firm should not maintain the stock.<br />Reorder Level – The stock level at which an order should be placed.<br />Safety Stock – Stock for usage at normal rate during the extension of lead time.<br />
  38. 38. Case study of inventory control (ABC)<br />Several types of inventories are there in ABC<br />Classify the inventories into<br /> -High value =A<br /> -Least value =C<br /> -reasonable attention=B(A&C)<br />
  39. 39. Cont…….<br />ABC analysis concentrate on important items<br /> =Control by important exception(CIE)<br />Classified in the importance of their relative value=Proportion Value Analysis(PVA)<br />
  40. 40. Step involved in implementing the ABC analysis<br />Classify ,determine expected use & price of the inventories<br />Determine total value of item(expected unitXunit price)<br />Rank the items (according to total value)<br />Compute the ratios (no.of unit/total unit) & (each value of item/total value of all item)<br />Combine on the basis of relative values (A,B,C)<br />
  41. 41. ABC analysis table<br />
  42. 42. Inference <br />Assumption =1&2 ,3,4&5,6&7 fall in the same category<br />1&2=item A<br />3,4&5=item B<br />6&7 =item C<br />
  43. 43. Thank you<br />
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