ContentsPART - I• Definition of Education• Constitution of PakistanPART – II• Education Scenario• Education Policy
Definition of EducationThe definition of education in commonusage, that education is merely thedelivery of knowledge, skills andinformation from teachers to students, isinadequate to capture what is reallyimportant about being and becomingeducated.
The proper definition of education is theprocess of becoming an educatedperson.Being an educated person means youhave access to optimal states of mindregardless of the situation you are in.
Constitution of Pakistan
Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973 – Article 37-b“The State shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within minimum possible period”
Concurrent Legislative List: Curriculum, syllabus, planning, policy, centers of excellence, standard of education & Islamic education
Educational Institutions by LevelLevel Total Public PrivatePre-primary 1,081 287 794Mosque school 14,123 14,035 88Primary 122,349 105,526 16,823Middle 38,449 14,334 24,115Secondary 25,090 10,550 14,540British System 281 11 270NFBE 4,831 2,008 2,823Inter & Degree Colleges 1,882 1,025 857Universities 116 59 57Technical/ Professional 1257 426 831Vocational 3,059 916 2,143Deeni Madaris 12,153 354 11,799Others 3,120 2,241 879
Institutions by Medium of InstructionType # of Institutions Urdu English Sindhi OthersTotal 227,791 14806 2277 3416 22779Public 151,744 103,186 3,035 33,384 12,139Private 76,047 43,347 21,29 3,521 9,886
EDUCATION POLICY OF PAKISTAN
Challenges• Weakened Governance − Fragmentation − Lack of Clarity in Inter-Tier Relationships• Poor Quality of Teachers & Managers• Quality of curriculum, textbooks & exams• Low level of literacy• Out of school children• Dropouts
Challenges• Public Private Partnership• In-adequate financing• Gender Equity• Poor monitoring & evaluation• Imbalance in primary, middle & secondary schools• Inconvenient school location
SALIENT FEATURES OF NATIONAL EDUCATION PLAN• Universal and Free Primary and Secondary Education• Promotion of Equity• Minimum National Standards• Relevance to Labour Market• Sector Planning• Financial allocation of 7% of GDP by 2018• Encourage Private sector• Link Allocations to Definition of Free Education• Improve Planning, Management and Implementation Capacity• Donor Harmonisation• Overcoming Fragmented Governance
SALIENT FEATURES OF NATIONAL EDUCATION PLAN• Bridging the Public Private Divide• Improved Examination System• Introduction of Early Childhood Education (3-5 years) & inclusive education.• Achieve the MDG goals.• All Primary schools shall be upgraded to Middle level• Well developed plan for expanding school facilities.• High priority to reducing drop out rates• Improved school environment• Career Counselling at higher secondary level• Develop national literacy curriculum• Enhance qualifications for employment as teachers
SALIENT FEATURES OF NATIONAL EDUCATION PLAN• Pre-service & in-service teacher training• Accreditation and certification of teachers• Merit based teacher recruitment, professional development, promotions & postings• Curriculum development• Competitive publishing of textbooks and learning materials• District Education Boards to be established for managing schools• Separate management & academic cadres
Allocation of Funds to Education: Year 2009-10 (Rs. in million) Non-Development Development Total1. Ministry of Education 1,824.426 3,122.459 4,946.8852. Higher Education 7,045.608 9,104.436 16,150.044 Commission3. Major Projects under Ministry of Educationa. Madaris Reforms (Teaching of formal subjects in Madaris) 1449.000b. Education Sector Reforms Program 800.00c. Establishment of 82,000 Community Schools in Pakistan 170.510 AJK and FATAd. Science Education Project (Phase-II) ADB assisted FCU 84.670e. National Education Assessment System (NEAS) 71.530f. Establishment of Cadet College Zhob at Qilla Saifullah 50.000 Continue…
(Rs. In million)g. Establishment of Cadet College Panjgur 50.000h. Upgradation of FG Secondary Educational Institutions 45.000 to the level of Islamabad Model Collegesi. Upgradation of FG Elementary Educational Institutions 40.000 to the level of Islamabad Model Schoolsj. Establishment of 350 Community Schools in hard to 39.329reach areas of FATA (NORAD assisted)
Future Plans for Education in Pakistan 1. Tripartite Partnership: The role of family, the community and the State. All need to be mobilized. 2. Free Education Upto Matriculation: 3. Provision of Free Textbooks: 4. Grant of Scholarships and Incentives to Girl Students: 5. Availability and Accessibility of Schools Particularly in Rural Areas. Continue…
6. Teacher’s Status and Recruitment of FemaleTeachers: Better status and pay for teachers. Experience has demonstrated that schools with female teachers function well particularly at Primary level.7. Improvement in Learning Environment: Better infrastructure through School Management Councils.8. Technical / Vocational Education: It is important to provide demand related skills.9. Instructional Methods: Emphasis must be given on development of analytical faculties of the students. Continue…
10. Teachers’ Training and Knowledge: To improve teachers’ knowledge of the subject and equip them with a wide repertoire of teaching skills.11. English Language: Introduction of English from Class – I. Future policy reforms will emphasize the teaching of science subjects in English at public secondary schools.