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  1. 1. Effective managementEffective managementStress ManagementStress Management
  2. 2. Stress ManagementStress ManagementStressStress is the condition that results whenis the condition that results whenperson-environmentperson-environmenttransactions lead the individual to perceivetransactions lead the individual to perceivea discrepancy, whether real or not,a discrepancy, whether real or not,between the demands of a situationbetween the demands of a situationand the resources of the personsand the resources of the personsbiological, psychological or social systems.biological, psychological or social systems.
  3. 3. Man-age-meantMan-age-meantManagementManagement is the act ofis the act ofgetting people together togetting people together toaccomplish desired goals andaccomplish desired goals andobjectives using availableobjectives using availableresources efficiently andresources efficiently andeffectively.effectively.
  4. 4. Mental health professionalsMental health professionalsbelieve personality plays abelieve personality plays asignificant role in how wesignificant role in how weperceive stress.perceive stress.
  5. 5. People with "Type A" personalities,People with "Type A" personalities,for example,for example,are rushed, ambitious,are rushed, ambitious,time-conscious and driven.time-conscious and driven.Studies suggest these traits,Studies suggest these traits,if not properly managed, canif not properly managed, cancreate stress-related illnesses.create stress-related illnesses.
  6. 6. In contrast, the "Type B" personalityIn contrast, the "Type B" personalityis a much more relaxed,is a much more relaxed,less time-conscious and drivenless time-conscious and drivenperson.person.
  7. 7. Type B personalities are able toType B personalities are able toview things more adaptively.view things more adaptively.They are better able to put thingsThey are better able to put thingsinto perspective, andinto perspective, andthink through how they are goingthink through how they are goingto deal with deal with situations.Consequently they tend to be lessConsequently they tend to be lessstress-prone.stress-prone.
  8. 8. The Development of PersonalityThe Development of PersonalityTypeType
  9. 9. But where do these differences inBut where do these differences inpersonality come from?personality come from?
  10. 10. A variety of social, biological, psychologicalA variety of social, biological, psychologicaland behavioral factors influence theand behavioral factors influence thedevelopment of our character.development of our character.Scientists agree that a largely geneticScientists agree that a largely geneticpersonal chemistry, or in-born temperament,personal chemistry, or in-born temperament,influences an infant to react to itsinfluences an infant to react to itsenvironment in ways that can be assertive orenvironment in ways that can be assertive orshy. Such tendencies are further influencedshy. Such tendencies are further influencedby experiences.The combination of inheritance andThe combination of inheritance andexperience form an individuals characteristicexperience form an individuals characteristicway of behaving, feeling and thinking — hisway of behaving, feeling and thinking — hispersonality.personality.
  11. 11. Is there gender differences inIs there gender differences incoping the stress???coping the stress???
  12. 12. Studies also show that men and womenStudies also show that men and womenhandle stress differently — a differencehandle stress differently — a differencethat some scientists attribute, in part, tothat some scientists attribute, in part, toestrogen.estrogen.This hormonal difference may alsoThis hormonal difference may alsoaccount for the fact thataccount for the fact thatwomen are three times more likely towomen are three times more likely todevelop depression in response to thedevelop depression in response to thestress in their lives than are men.stress in their lives than are men.
  13. 13. Women, unlike men, also tend to haveWomen, unlike men, also tend to havestronger social support networks tostronger social support networks towhich they turn during times of stress.which they turn during times of stress.TheseThesesocial supports may help explain whysocial supports may help explain whywomen, in general, seem to be betterwomen, in general, seem to be betterable to cope with stress than to cope with stress than men.