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Organic Laws Implemented in The Philippines and Heroes


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Social Science - Politics And Governance

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Organic Laws Implemented in The Philippines and Heroes

  1. 1. 1898-1941
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES: • To discuss the organic law applied by the American Law in the Philippines. • To give recognize for those Filipino who sought and fight for the freedom of the Philippines.
  3. 3. ORGANIC LAW The fundamental law or constitution of a particular state or nation, either written or unwritten, that defines and establishes the manner in which its government will be organized.
  4. 4. A basic law for the Insular Government that was enacted by the United States Congress on July 1, 1902. It is also known as the Philippine Bill of 1902 and the Cooper Act, after its author Henry A. Cooper. The approval of the act coincided with the official end of the Philippine–American War. The bill proposed the creation and administration of a civil government in the Philippines. President Theodore Roosevelt signed it into law in July 2, 1902. Philippine Bill of 1902 Henry A. Cooper
  5. 5. Here are some of the more important provisions of the Cooper Act: • Ratification of all changes introduced in the Philippine government by the president of the U.S., such as the establishment of the Philippine Commission, the office of the civil governor and the Supreme court • Extension of the American Bill of Rights to the Filipinos except the right of trial by jury • Creation of bicameral legislative body, with the Philippine Commission as the upper house and a still-to-be-elected Philippine Assembly as the Lower House • Retention of the executive powers of the civil governor, who was also president of the Philippine Commission • Designation of the Philippine Commission as the legislating authority for non- Christian tribes • Retention of the Judicial powers of the Supreme court and other lower courts • Appointment of two Filipino resident commissioners who would represent the Philippines in the US Congress but would not enjoy voting rights • Conservation of Philippine natural resources
  6. 6. The Jones Law (39 Stat. 545, c. 416), also known as the Jones Act, the Philippine Autonomy Act, and the Act of Congress of August 29, 1916, was an Organic Act accepted by the United States Congress. The law replaced the Philippine Organic Act of 1902 and acted like a constitution of the Philippines from its enactment until 1934 when the Tydings–McDuffie Act was passed (which in turn led eventually to the Commonwealth of the Philippines and to independence from the United States). The Jones Law created the first fully elected Philippine legislature.
  7. 7. The Philippine Legislature was the legislative body of the Philippines from 1907 to 1935, during the American Colonial Period. It was a bicameral legislature of the Insular Government and was established by the Philippine Organic Act of 1902. The legislature's upper house was the appointed Philippine Commission, headed by the American Governor General (who also served as the executive), and its lower house was the elected Philippine Assembly. The Jones Law of 1916 abolished the Philippine Commission and reorganized the Philippine Legislature as a fully elected bicameral legislature composed of a Senate and House of Representatives, precursors to today's Senate of the Philippines and House of Representatives of the Philippines.
  8. 8. The law also changed the Philippine Legislature into the Philippines' first fully elected body and therefore made it more autonomous of the U.S. Government. While the 1902 Philippine Organic Act provided for an elected lower house (the Philippine Assembly), the upper house (the Philippine Commission) was appointed. The Jones Law provided for both houses to be elected and changed the name of the Assembly to the House of Representatives. The executive branch continued to be headed by an appointed Governor General of the Philippines, always an American. JONES LAW
  9. 9. The law, enacted by the 64th United States Congress on August 29, 1916, contained the first formal and official declaration of the United States Federal Government's commitment to grant independence to the Philippines and was a framework for a "more autonomous government", with certain privileges reserved to the United States to protect its sovereign rights and interests, in preparation for the grant of independence by the United States. The law provides that the grant of independence would come only "as soon as a stable government can be established", which was to be determined by the United States Government itself.
  10. 10. The Tydings–McDuffie Act (officially the Philippine Independence Act; Public Law 73-127) approved on March 24, 1934 was a United States federal law which provided for self-government of the Philippines and for Filipino independence (from the United States) after a period of twelve years. It was authored by Maryland Senator Millard E. Tydings and Alabama Representative John McDuffie. In 1934, Philippine politician Manuel L. Quezon headed a "Philippine Independence mission" to Washington, DC that successfully secured the act's passage in Congress. (Tydings-McDuffie Law) The Philippine Independence Act Sen. Millard E. Tydings Sen. John McDuffie
  11. 11. The Tydings–McDuffie Act provided for the drafting and guidelines of a Constitution for a 10-year "transitional period" which became the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines before the granting of Philippine independence, during which the US would maintain military forces in the Philippines. The transition government, called the Philippine Commonwealth, was democratically-elected and run by President Manuel Quezon and Vice President Sergio Osmena, Furthermore, during this period the American President was granted the power to call into military service all military forces of the Philippine government. The act permitted the maintenance of US naval bases, within this region, for two years after independence. The act reclassified all Filipinos that were living in the United States as aliens for the purposes of immigration to America. Filipinos were no longer allowed to work legally in the US, and a quota of 50 immigrants per year was established.
  12. 12. Salient provisions of the Tydings-McDuffie Law: 1. The organization of constitutional Convention that draw up the fundamental law of the land. 2. The election of the leaders of Philippine Commonwealth 3. The recognition of Philippine independence on July 4, 1946. 4. The right of United States to establish military bases in the country 5. Granting the United States president the power to call on all military forces of the Philippines into service. 6. Reclassifying all Filipinos as aliens and limiting immigration to the United Sates to 50 persons per year. The Tydings-McDuffie law also specified that the Philippines would practice neutrality. Meaning, it could not go to war without permission of the United States except when it had to protect itself.
  13. 13. Filipino who sought freedom for the Philippines
  14. 14. He is remembered as the "Hero of Tirad Pass" and to the Americans as an "Officer and a Gentleman." Pilar, at 24, was the youngest general in the Revolutionary Army, who fought bravely against the Americans, with only 60 men. On December 2, 1899, he was killed in the Tirad Pass while commanding Aguinaldo's rearguard. Before his death, he wrote, "I am surrounded by fearful odds that will overcome me and my gallant men, but I am pleased to die fighting for my beloved country." The Tirad Pass has been declared a national shrine. Gregorio Del Pilar
  15. 15. He is the founder the Katipunan, a secret organization aimed to overthrow Spanish sovereignty in the Philippines. Its full name was Kataas-taasan Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng Mga Anak ng Bayan (Highest and Most Respected Association of the Sons of the Country), and was known by its intitials K.K.K. Bonifacio is also known as the "Great Plebian." He and Emilio Jacinto issued stirring literature to arouse people to revolt against the Spaniards. On August 23, 1896, Bonifacio assembled his men at Balintawak, tore their cedulas (poll tax), and declared the start of rebellion. However, a conflict of leadership developed between he and Emilio Aguinaldo, who was leading the struggle in his home province of Cavite. After this power struggle, on May 10, 1897, Emilio Aguinaldo
  16. 16. She is a famous heroine in Philippine history. She was married to Fulgencio Ramos with whom she had six children. In 1896, the Katipuneros of Andres Bonifacio declared war on her land against the Spaniards. Secret meeting of the Katipuneros were held at her house, and she tended Filipinos who managed to escape by dressing their wounds, feeding them, and hiding them from the Spaniards. Soon, the Spaniards learned about her cause and the underground meetings, and she was exiled to Marianas along with 171 Filipinos charged with rebellion. In 1903, she came back under the American regime. On March 2, 1919, she died, at the age of 107. She was Melchora Aquino
  17. 17. Mabini served as General Emilio Aguinaldo's adviser. He advised Aguinaldo to change the dictatorial form of government to revolutionary. He organized the municipalities, and provinces, and the judiciary and the police forces, and formulated army regulations. When the revolutionary congress convened at Barasoain, Malolos, Bulacan, he was Aguinaldo's Prime Minister. He helped outline the Malolos constitution. Hence, he was aptly called the "Brains of the Revolution” and “Sublime Paralytic”. He continued writing articles advocating for reforms while in hiding, but was captured by the Apolinario Mabini
  18. 18. The three priests, all graduates of the University of Sto. Tomas, were brilliant men who used their education to fight for reforms to break the 300 year old dominance of the Spanish government. They headed the secularization movement which alleviated the plight of Filipino priests by insisting on the prior right of the native secular clergy to assignment in parishes over that of the friars newly arrived from Spain. Burgos, the youngest and most brilliant of the three, was especially vulnerable in this regard since he was the synodal examiner of parish priests. He got into a tiff more than once with then Archbishop of Manila Gregorio Martinez in this regard. It was after the execution of Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Apolonio Burgos and Jacinto Zamora on February 17, 1873 that this needed impetus to fight for freedom came.
  19. 19. Andrés Bonifacio y de Castro (November 30, 1863 – May 10, 1897) was a Filipino revolutionary leader and one of the main leaders of the Philippine Revolution against Spanish colonial rule in the late 19th century. He is regarded as the "Father of the Philippine Revolution" and one of the most influential national heroes of his country. A Freemason, Bonifacio was the leading founder of the Katipunan organization which aimed to start an independence movement against Spain. Andres Bonifacio
  20. 20. Jose Rizal, our national hero, was born in Calamba, Laguna. His parents were Francisco Mercado Rizal and Teodora Alonso. He was educated in Europe and obtained his license in ophthalmology and philosophy in France. He wrote Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not) and El Filibusterismo (The Rebel) in Europe, which told about the oppression of Spanish colonial rule. In 1892, when Rizal returned to the Philippines, he formed La Liga Filipina, a forum for Filipinos to express their hopes for reform and freedom from the oppressive Spanish colonial administration. He was arrested as a revolutionary and was exiled in Dapitan, Mindanao. His writings and La Liga Filipina were banned. Later, he was imprisoned in Fort Santiago, Manila after a trial. On December 30, 1896, he was executed by a firing squad at Bagumbayan, now known as Luneta, in Manila for spreading ideals of revolution. Jose Rizal