Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Educational policy


Published on

  • Login to see the comments

Educational policy

  1. 1. Educational Policy And inequality
  2. 2. Educational Policy  Plans and strategies for education introduced by the government  Acts of Parliament  Recommendations
  3. 3. Schooling before the 19th Century  There was no national system of education  Only a tiny minority of the children received any schooling.  Opportunities for a formal education were restricted mainly to Private fee-paying schools, and some Charity/Church schools
  4. 4. The 1870 Education Act Provided state-run elementary schools for 5- 11 year olds Maximum fees of nine pence a week The Forster Act
  5. 5. The 1880 Elementary Education Act Made school compulsory up to the age of 10
  6. 6. Education became free By 1899 it was compulsory up to the age of 12
  7. 7. Butler Education Act Education system continued to evolve slowly over early 20th Century Next Major reform occurred in 1944
  8. 8. Butler Education Act  The second world war had caused people to want a better future  Education was seen as a way to achieve this  Radically restructured education, creating a formal state funded secondary sector
  9. 9. Butler Act 1944  Aimed to create a meritocratic system  It was believed that a child’s ability was fixed by the age of 11 and could be accurately measured with a special type of IQ test  The result of the 11+ test would then determine which type of school the child attended
  10. 10. Tripartite System Grammar Schools Secondary Technical Schools Secondary Modern Schools
  11. 11. Tripartite System  Rather than creating meritocracy it reproduced class inequality  It also reproduced gender inequality  The tripartite system also legitimated inequality through the idea that ability is inborn (innate)
  12. 12. Comprehensivisation During the 50s and 60s discontent grew with the tripartite system A new comprehensive system was introduced from 1965 onwards Labour government policy
  13. 13. Comprehensivisation  Comprehensive education abolished the 11+ test and the three types of secondary school  Comprehensive schools aimed to educate all children regardless of ability  Therefore abolish inequality
  14. 14. Comprehensivisation  Admission to a comprehensive school was based on catchment area rather than IQ test  In 2005 -9 out of 10 children attend some form of comprehensive school  Only 164 grammar schools remain
  15. 15. Comprehensivisation  While comprehensives did reduce the class gap in achievement…  The system reproduced inequality through Streaming Labelling
  16. 16. Myth of meritocracy  Comprehensives legitimated inequality  By creating the idea of equal opportunity  If you fail it is your own fault  And yet we have seen the class, gender and ethnicity all impact how well students do
  17. 17. • In 1979 the Conservative party won the election and Margaret Thatcher became prime minister • They wanted an education system that would • Meet the needs of industry • Raise standards
  18. 18. New Vocationalism  Until the 70s, vocational training was seen as the responsibility of employers  A rise in youth unemployment began to change this  It was thought schools were not providing kids with the skills they required
  19. 19. New Vocationalism  New vocationalism is the direct government intervention in youth training  1983 – YTS Youth Training Schemes  1986 – NVQs were developed for a range of qualifications
  20. 20. Criticisms of New Vocationalism  Serves the needs of capitalism rather than young people  Cohen (1984) – teaches attitudes and values needed or subordinate workforce. Lowers aspirations  Finn (1987) – cheap labour for employers, undermines trade unions, keeps employment statistics down.
  21. 21. The Education Reform Act Introduced by the Conservative government MARKETISATION
  22. 22. Define Marketisation (2 marks)
  23. 23. Parentocracy  Miriam David 1993  Rule by parents  Marketisation shifts power away from the producers and to the consumers
  24. 24. Education Reform Act  Market forces - Competition  Introduction of National Curriculum  Introduction of inspection – OFSTED  Testing – League tables  Vocationalism – job based study
  25. 25. National Curriculum  A standard set of subjects and content to be studied by all children in state schools  Ensures basic skills are taught consistently  Makes school leavers more employable  Common basis for measuring progress and school performance
  26. 26. Testing and League tables  SATS test were introduced to monitor progress  These also allowed school performance to be checked  League Tables of exam results were published to give parents information about schools so they can make informed choices
  27. 27. Ofsted  Ofsted was set up to inspect schools and report on their performance  Ofsted reports are published publicly so parents can access them to aid their choices
  28. 28. Reproduction of inequality  Stephen Ball (1994)  Geoff Whitty (1998)  Both argue that marketisation reproduces inequality