Spanish grammar book 2

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Spanish grammar book 2

  1. 1. Grammar Bookpart 2.<br />Lola Guinn<br />5th period<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents:<br />Conditional + Irregulars<br />Perfect tenses<br />Present<br />Past<br />Present perfect irregulars<br />Subjunctive perfect<br />TantoyTan<br />Impersonal se<br />Saber vs.Conocer<br />Los Mandatos<br />Informal/ formal<br />Affirmative<br />Negative<br />Irregular<br />DOP + IOP placement<br />Nosotros Commands<br />Mono Verbs<br />Subjunctive + Irregulars<br />Expressions of Emotion with Present Sub.<br />Trigger Phrases<br />Impersonal Expressions<br />Expressions of Emotion<br />Conjunctions of Time<br />Demonstrative Adjective and Pronouns<br />
  3. 3. Conditional + Irregulars<br />Expresses probability, possibility, or conjecture.<br />“would, could, should”<br />These irregulars are the same as future tense<br />
  4. 4. Perfect Tenses<br />Prefect tense portrays an action or state as completed and not in progress, from a different point of view<br />It has two parts…. <br />helping verb + past participle<br />3 main perfect tenses: present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect<br />
  5. 5. Present <br />The present perfect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb "has" or "have" with the past participle.<br />Example:<br />He comido- I have eaten.<br />
  6. 6. Past<br />Past tense is “had”<br />It has the same endings as the conditional <br />Example:<br />Habíavivido- I had lived.<br />
  7. 7. Present Perfect Irregulars<br />Hemospuesto- we have put<br />Han escrito- they have written<br />He abierto- I have opened<br />Ha muerto- she has died<br />Han visto- you all have seen<br />Ha dicho- you (formal) have said<br />Has vuelto- you have returned<br />Hemoshecho- we have done<br />
  8. 8. Subjunctive Perfect<br />Subjunctive perfect is the compound tense of the present subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb<br />
  9. 9. Tanto & Tan<br />Forming comparisons of equalities with nouns:<br />Tanto (-a,-os,-as) + noun + como<br />Example:<br />Roberto tienetantogalletascomoShakira.<br />Forming comparisons of equalities with adjectives or adverbs:<br />Tan + adj(adverb) + como<br />Example:<br />El libroes tan buenocomo la película.<br />
  10. 10. Impersonal ‘Se’<br />Verb is always in 3rd person and followed by a direct object<br />Se+ 3rd person singular<br />Example:<br />Se hablaespañol. <br />
  11. 11. Saber vs.Conocer<br />
  12. 12. LosMandatos:<br />Used to directly address someone and give them an order<br />Can be formal or informal<br />Can be nosotros<br />Can be affirmative or negative<br />
  13. 13. Informal & Formal<br />
  14. 14. Affirmative<br />
  15. 15. Negative<br />
  16. 16. Irregulars<br />
  17. 17. Dop &IopPlacement<br />The DOP is placed before verb<br />It answers the questions of who? & what? <br /><ul><li>TheIOPis placed before the verb
  18. 18. It answersthe questions of to whom? & for whom? </li></li></ul><li>Nosotros Commands<br />Used when speaker is included, used to express: lets + verb<br />Opposite nosotrosending is used<br />Example:<br />Comamosallí<br />-emos:nosotroscommand of -AR verbs<br />-amos:nosotroscommand of -ER and -IR verbs<br />***For negative, just add no before verb<br />
  19. 19. Mono Verbs<br />With affirmativenosotros commands, the final “s” is dropped before adding the pronouns –nos or –se<br />Example:<br />Sentemos + nos = sentémonos<br />Withnegative nosotros commands, the pronoun comes before the verd<br />Example:<br />No nossentemonos<br />
  20. 20. Subjunctive<br />The subjunctive is used to express everything but certainty and objectivity<br />Process:<br />Start w/ “yo” form, drop the –o ending, and add the following endings<br />Examples:<br />com + a = coma<br />habl + e = hable<br />
  21. 21. Subjunctive Irregulars<br />The irregulars for subjunctive are the car, gar, zars and TVDISHES<br />Examples:<br />Dar<br />dé<br />des<br />dé<br />demos<br />den<br />Estar<br />esté<br />estés<br />esté<br />estemos<br />estén<br />Ir<br />Vaya<br />vayas<br />vaya<br />vayamos<br />Vayan<br />
  22. 22. ExampleSentences:<br />Nos alegramos de que te gusten las flores <br />We are happy that you like the flowers<br /> <br />Siento que tu no puedas venir mañana<br />Im sorry that you cant come tomorrow<br />Expressions of Emotions with Present Subjunctive<br />
  23. 23. Trigger Phases:<br />A menosque…<br />Antes que…<br />Cuando…<br />Dudarque…<br />En cuanto…<br />Es buenoque…<br />Es imposibleque…<br />Es maloque…<br /><ul><li>Quererque…
  24. 24. Sin que…
  25. 25. Negarque…
  26. 26. Hastaque…
  27. 27. Enraro que…
  28. 28. Esmejor que…
  29. 29. Es posibleque…
  30. 30. Esperarque…</li></li></ul><li>Impersonal Expressions<br /> Triggers of the subjunctive<br />
  31. 31. Expressions of Emotions<br />
  32. 32. Conjuctionsof Time<br />
  33. 33. Demonstrative Adjectives<br /><ul><li>Placed before the noun and agree with number and gender
  34. 34. Example:</li></ul> this restaurant = este resturante<br />
  35. 35. Demonstrative Pronouns<br /><ul><li> Adj. can act as a noun, accent is added to the first “e” in the word
  36. 36. Example:prefieroésa =that one</li>

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