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Grammar book 2


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Grammar book 2

  1. 1. By: Jamila miller<br />3rd<br />Grammar Book 2nd Semester<br />
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS<br />Conditional<br />Perfect Tenses<br />Present<br />Present Perfect Irregulars<br />Past<br />Subjunctive Perfect<br />Nosotros Command<br />Mono Verbs<br /><ul><li>Subjunctive + Irregulars
  3. 3. Trigger Phrases
  4. 4. Impersonal Expressions
  5. 5. Expressions of Emotion
  6. 6. Conjunctions of Time
  7. 7. Impersonal ‘se’
  8. 8. Saber vs. Conocer
  9. 9. Los Mandadtos
  10. 10. Informal/Formal
  11. 11. Affirmative
  12. 12. Negative
  13. 13. Irregular
  14. 14. DOP + IOP
  15. 15. Demonstrative Adjectives + Pronouns
  16. 16. Tan y Tanto</li></li></ul><li>Conjugation<br />English Translation <br />ía<br />ías<br />ía<br />Used in relation to would, should, could, must have, or probably<br />Used to express:<br />Wonder<br />Conjecture<br />Possibility<br />Probability <br />Conditional<br />íamos<br />íais<br />ían<br />
  17. 17. Conditional Irregulars<br />
  18. 18. Present Perfect<br />Used to express or describe actions that have happened recently and/or actions that still hold true in the present.<br /> He pagado la cuenta. He pagado<br />
  19. 19. Present Perfect Irregulars<br />Abrir- abierto<br />Cubrir- cubierto<br />Decir- dicho<br />Escribir- escrito<br />Hacer- hecho<br />Morir- muerto<br />Poner- puesto<br />Resolver- resolto<br />Ver- visto<br />Volver- vuelto<br />Ir- ido<br />Romper- roto<br />
  20. 20. Past Perfect<br />Ex: Juan habíaabiertolaspuertas.<br />Ex: (yo) Habíavivido.<br /> I had lived.<br />
  21. 21. Subjunctive Perfect<br />We use the present perfect subjunctive when we want to express a reaction to something that has happened (already). We need a conjugation of the verb Haber and a past participle. The only difference is that we conjugate Haber in the present Subjunctive.<br />
  22. 22. Impersonal ‘se’<br />1. Use se to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb.<br />Se vendefruta en la fruteria.<br />2. When using se, the verb is always in 3rd person.<br />Aqui se habíaespañol.<br />3. Se can be used in all tenses.<br />Se hizo mucho<br />Se haría mucho.<br />Se habíahecho.<br />
  23. 23. Saber vs. Conocer<br />To Know:<br />
  24. 24. MandatosInformalesTu Commands<br />
  25. 25. Informal Mandatos<br />
  26. 26. Formal Mandatos<br />
  27. 27. DOP and IOP Placement<br />
  28. 28. Nosotros Commands<br />
  29. 29. Mono Verbs<br />1) if object pronouns are used, they must be attached to the end of affirmative commands, and this will always require a written accent in the nosotros forms<br /> 2) the first s of the affirmative reflexive ending is lost<br />Ex: ¡Comamosafueraestanoche!<br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
  32. 32. Trigger Phrases<br />Impersonal Expressions vs. Conjunctions of Time<br />The impersonal phrases come before the subjunctive and the time phrases come after the independent clause to indicate when to use a subjunctive.<br />
  33. 33. Expressions of Emotion <br />Trigger Phrases<br /><ul><li>II. Verbs/expressions of emotion or feeling
  34. 34. alegrarse de que to be happy that
  35. 35. esbuenoque it's good that
  36. 36. esconvenienteque it's convenient that
  37. 37. esdifícilque it's hard
  38. 38. esextrañoque it's strange that
  39. 39. esfácilque it's easy
  40. 40. esincreíbleque it's incredible that
  41. 41. esinútilque it's useless that (there's no point) esjustoque it's fair that</li></ul>I. Verbs/expressions of will or want<br />aconsejarque to advise <br />decirque to tell <br />dejarque to let, allow <br />desearque to desire that <br />eshoraque it's time that <br />esimportanteque it is important that <br />esnecesarioque it is necessary that <br />esperarque to hope that <br />esprecisoque it is necessary that <br />evitarque to avoid <br /><ul><li>Frequently, the sentences that contain a subjunctive verb are used to express doubt, uncertainty, denial, desire, commands or reactions to the clause containing the subjunctive verb.</li></li></ul><li>Expressions of Emotion Cont.<br />Trigger Phrases Cont.<br />III. Verbs/expressions of doubt, possibility, opinion<br />aparecerque to appear, seem that <br />buscar ... que* to look for <br />detestarque to hate <br />dudarque to doubt <br />esdudosoque it is doubtful that <br />esimposibleque it is impossible that <br />es improbable que it is improbable that <br />esposibleque it is possible that <br />es probable que it is probable that<br />
  42. 42. Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns<br />
  43. 43. Tan y Tanto<br />