The Ming And Qing Dynasties Of China


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The Ming And Qing Dynasties Of China

  1. 1. The Ming and Qing Dynasties of China
  2. 2. Some Chinese bureaucrats replaced Turkish, Persian, central Asian and others Background Mongol (Yuan) Dynasty 1279 - 1368 Best known emperor Kublai Khan Retained Mongol culture…blended central Asian and Chinese culture
  3. 3. Built a centralized state and consolidated Chinese rule in former territories <ul><li>The Ming Dynasty 1368 - 1644 </li></ul>Restored native rule to China Founded by Emperor Hongwu who drove out the Mongols The Quest for Political Stability
  4. 4. Ming military power weakens in time Emperor Yogi 1403-1424 Expanded Chinese sea trade in the Indian Ocean and Africa Moved capital to Beijing in 1421 to better watch northern nomads (Mongols and Manchus)
  5. 5. Still needed an active army to be effective Ming Wall Built On Remains Of Former Wall Built In 4th Century BC Built To Protect Against Northern Nomads Large labor force required The Great Wall: 15 th –16 th Centuries
  6. 6. <ul><li>Supported Confucian schools </li></ul>Eradication of foreign influence especially Mongol Restoration of Chinese institutions ignored by Mongols <ul><li>Confucianism </li></ul>Ming Cultural Changes <ul><li>Restored civil service examinations </li></ul>
  7. 7. Imperial extravagance The navy became ineffective in the 16 th century Smuggling reduced govt. income Piracy not suppressed until mid-1500s Ming Decline Eunuchs gained influence and increased corruption and isolation of emperors
  8. 8. Ming Dynasty ended with suicide of the Emperor Emperor Wanli (1572-1620) refused to meet with government officials… conducted business through eunuchs Beijing captured by combined forces In 1644 Government did not deal with famine leading to peasant revolts in the 1630's. Peasants allied with Manchus
  9. 9. Ruled from 1644 until it was replaced by the Chinese Republic in 1911 Central State Founded In Manchuria Under Chieftain Nurhaci In 1616 Unified Manchu Tribes Issued Law Code Developed Strong Army The Qing (Manchu) Dynasty
  10. 10. Basis of Manchu power: Korea and Mongolia seized in 1620's and 1630's Controlled all of China by the 1680s <ul><li>Military strength Ming corruption and inefficiency (caused Ming generals and bureaucrats to desert to the Manchu) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Strong and effective leadership kept tensions low Early Qing Leadership Rulers looked after peoples welfare and promoted agriculture Emperors studied and understood Confucianism Patronized Confucian schools and academies
  12. 12. Long reigns of Kangxi (1661-1722) and Qianlong (1736-1794) helped promote stability
  13. 13. The Reign of Qianlong 1736-1794
  14. 14. Learned man who supported economic strength 19th century began Qing decline Economy strong enough to cancel tax collection FOUR TIMES! Delegated power toward end of reign. His successors followed this practice
  15. 15. Rigorous exam for public service. Knowledge of Confucian works, history and literature necessary One million degree holders competed for about 20,000 positions! Exams open to all males, but wealthy had advantage of resources, time The Civil Service Exams Avenue for upward social mobility
  16. 16. Qing goal to restore traditional Chinese culture Global trade brought increased wealth Economic and social change driven by contact from abroad Economic and Social Changes Agricultural production increased. New American food crops introduced
  17. 17. Filial piety…Confucian morality applied idea of duty to family and Emperor Provided means to transmit Confucian values to next generation Father head of household. Veneration of ancestors honored male line The Patriarchal Family Local education allowed poor to prepare for civil service exams
  18. 18. Women subject to the authority of men Family life continued to move along traditional lines in Ming and Qing China After marriage became member of husband’s family. Wife couldn’t initiate divorce Gender Relations Girls primary victims of infanticide
  19. 19. Foot binding widespread among wealthy in Qing Period - deformed feet wouldn’t support weight - showed dependence of women involved
  20. 20. The Privileged Classes: Landowners Emperor and family at peak of social hierarchy Qing Social Hierarchy Scholar bureaucrats
  21. 21. Confucian traditions divided commoners into three classes: Merchants (ranked at bottom) Peasants (the largest class) Qing Social Hierarchy Artisans and workers (lower status but higher income than peasants)
  22. 22. The lower classes: Armed Forces (Confucianism considers them a “necessary evil”) “Mean people” Slaves Indentured servants Entertainers Prostitutes Beggars Qing Social Hierarchy
  23. 23. China a world leader in Medieval Period Government and Technology Adopted European cannon and firearms Ming and Qing favored stability over innovation Ready availability of labor didn’t encourage invention China lost technological ground to Europeans in long term
  24. 24. Emperor Yongli sponsored expeditions to Indian Ocean (1405-1433) Trade, expansion, and withdrawal Admiral Zheng He Called throughout Indian Ocean as far west as Africa. Suppressed piracy in Asian waters Significantly expanded Chinese influence After Yongli, emperors no longer supported foreign expeditions
  25. 25. Foreign merchants in China closely supervised by government Limited access to specific ports Chinese merchants not encouraged to trade overseas No large ship yards allowed. no trading corporations supported Thus they could not compete with Europeans by the time of the Qing