Chapter 08


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  • Centralized imperial ruleLasted a few years
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  • Chapter 08

    1. 1. The Unification of China<br />Chapter 9 Overview<br />
    2. 2. SimaQian<br />Disgraced Chinese historian<br />Wrote accounts of early imperial China<br />
    3. 3. In Search of Political and Social Order<br />Zhou Dynasty brings political confusion<br />Period of Warring States<br />Legalists, Daoists, Confucians<br />
    4. 4. Confucius<br />Chinese thinker who addressed problem of political and social order<br />Aristocratic family<br />Educator and political advisor<br />Analects<br />
    5. 5. Confucian Ideas<br />Moral, ethical, political and practical<br />Focused on proper ordering of human relationships<br />Educated and conscientious rulers – junzi<br />Emphasis on Zhou Dynasty texts<br />
    6. 6. Confucian Values<br />Strong moral integrity<br />Ren– kindness and humanity<br />Li – propriety, appropriate behavior<br />Xiao – filial piety, respect in the family<br />Traits lead to development of junzi – ideal leaders<br />Self control<br />Junzicould bring order to China<br />
    7. 7. Mencius (372-289 B.C.E.)<br />Confucian scholar<br />Human nature basically good<br />Encouraged support of education, avoid wars, light taxes, harmony and cooperation<br />Not influential at the time<br />Authority since 10th century C.E.<br />
    8. 8. Xunzi (298 – 238 B.C.E.)<br />Career as government administrator<br />Belief in fundamental selfishness of humanity<br />Compare with Mencius<br />Emphasis on li, rigid propriety<br />Discipline, standards of conduct<br />
    9. 9. Daosim<br />Critics of Confucian activism<br />Pointless to waste time and energy on problems<br />Focus on understanding fundamental nature of the world<br />Believed this approach would bring harmony<br />
    10. 10. Laozi and the Daodejing<br />Founder in 6th century B.C.E.<br />The Daodejing(Classic of Way and of Virtue)<br />Zhuangzi (named for author, 369-236 BCE)<br />
    11. 11. The Dao<br />The way (of nature, cosmos)<br />It is nothing, yet accomplishes everything<br />Water: soft and yielding, but capable of eroding rock<br />Cavity of pots, wheels: nonexistent, but essential<br />
    12. 12. The Doctrine of Wuwei<br />Attempt to control universe results in chaos<br />Restore order by disengagement<br />No advanced education<br />No ambition<br />Simple living in harmony with nature<br />Cultivate self-knowledge<br />
    13. 13. Political Implications of Daosim<br />Less government <br />Tiny communities instead of expansive empires<br />Neither Confucianism nor Daoism exclusive faiths<br />Confucianism as public doctrine<br />Daoism as private pursuit<br />Ironic combination allowed intellectuals to pursue both<br />
    14. 14. Legalism<br />Problems persisted during Warring States Period<br />3rd school of thought<br />Emphasis on development of the state<br />Ruthless approach to state building<br />Unconcerned with ethics and morals, natural laws<br />
    15. 15. Shang Yang (390-338 B.C.E.)<br />Chief minister to the duke of the Qin state<br />Feared for his power and ruthlessness<br />Enemies executed him, mutilated body, annihilated family<br />
    16. 16. Han Feizi (280-233 B.C.E.)<br />Student of Xunzi<br />Collection of essays on legalist ideas<br />Forced to commit suicide by legalist opponents.<br />
    17. 17. Legalist Doctrine<br />State strengths: agriculture and military<br />Channeled people into military or cultivation<br />Adhere to clear, strict laws<br />Severe punishment for minor infractions– deterrence<br />
    18. 18. Impact of Legalism<br />Practical<br />Put an end to the Period of the Warring States<br />Ends justifies the means<br />Influenced Qin state<br />Brought about unification of China<br />
    19. 19. Unification of China<br />
    20. 20. The Kingdom of Qin<br />
    21. 21. Kingdom of Qin<br />Qin dynasty develops, 4th-3rd centuries BCE<br />Generous land grants under Shang Yang<br />Private farmers decrease power of large landholders<br />Increasing centralization of power<br />Improved military technology<br />Qin state attacked one state after another<br />Eventually brought China under control of one single state for the first time.<br />
    22. 22. The First Emperor<br />Qin Shihuangdi proclaims himself emperor in 221 B.C.E.<br />Dynasty ends in 207, but sets dramatic precedent<br />Basis of rule: centralized bureaucracy<br />Long term influence<br />
    23. 23. First Emperor<br />China divided into administrative provinces and districts<br />Disarmed regional militaries<br />Built roads – communication and control<br />Build defensive walls with drafted labor<br />Massive public works<br />Brought political stability<br />
    24. 24.
    25. 25. Resistance to Qin Policies<br />Criticized by Confucians and Daosists<br />Critics were executed<br />Burned books on philosophy, ethics, literature and some history<br />
    26. 26. Burning of Books<br />460 scholars who criticized Qin were buried alive<br />Other critics sentenced to the army to fight in dangerous regions<br />Some scholars hid texts<br />Many works disappeared<br />
    27. 27. Qin Centralization<br />Standardized:<br />Laws<br />Currencies<br />Weights and measures<br />Building of roads, bridges <br />Leads to tight knit society<br />
    28. 28. Standardized Script<br />Script<br />Previously: single language written in distinct scripts<br />Maintained different spoken languages<br />
    29. 29. Tomb of the First Emperor<br />Qin died in 210 B.C.E.<br />Tom built by 700,000 draft laborers<br />15,000 Terra cota soldiers<br />Slaves, concubines and craftsmen sacrificed<br />
    30. 30.
    31. 31. The Early Han Dynasty<br />Qin dynasty quickly dissolved after his death<br />Revolts began in 207 B.C.E.<br />Ill will of laborers<br />
    32. 32. Liu Bang<br />Commander – restores order in 206 B.C.E<br />Founder of new dynasty – Han<br />Former Han (206 BCE-9 CE)<br />Interruption 9-23 CE<br />Later Han (25-220 CE)<br />Consolidated the tradition of centralized rule<br />Ruled from Chang’an<br />
    33. 33. Early Han Policies<br />Liu Bang mixed Zhou and Qin policies<br />Relaxed Qin tyranny without returning to Zhou anarchy<br />Created large landholdings; maintained control over administrative regions<br />After failed rebellion, took more central control<br />
    34. 34. The Martial Emperor, Han Wudi<br />Greatest, most energetic Han ruler<br />141-87 B.C.E.<br />Centralization and imperial expansion<br />Increase authority and prestige of central government<br />
    35. 35. Han Centralization<br />Built enormous bureaucracy to administer empire<br />Legalist ideals<br />Imperial officers sent to administer provinces<br />Build roads, canals<br />Taxed agriculture, trade and crafts<br />Monopolized iron and salt<br />Enormous bureaucracy required educated individuals<br />
    36. 36. The Confucian Education System<br />124 B.C.E. – Han Wudi establishes imperial university<br />Prepare men for gov’t<br />Confucian curriculum<br />Ensured survival of <br /> Confucianism<br />Enrolled over 3,000<br />30,000 by Later Han<br />
    37. 37. Han Imperial Expansion<br />Invaded northern Vietnam and Korea<br />Ruled with Chinese-style government, Confucian values<br />Confucianism influences education in Korea and Vietnam<br />
    38. 38. The Xiongnu<br />Nomadic people<br />Central Asian steppes<br />Raided villages and trade posts<br />Maodun- greatest Xiongnu leader<br />Han Wudi briefly dominates Xiongnu<br />
    39. 39.
    40. 40. Han Expansion into Central Asia<br />Han Wudi invades Central Asia with vast army<br />100,000 troops<br />Xiongnu empire brought under military control<br />Pacified area all the way to Bactria<br />Xiongnu empire falls as a result of Han policies<br />
    41. 41.
    42. 42. From Economic Prosperity to Social Disorder<br />
    43. 43. Productivity and Prosperity<br />High agricultural production<br />Craft industries<br />Iron<br />Silk<br />
    44. 44. Patriarchal Social Order<br />Filial piety – family first<br />Han moralist enhance male authority – believed it was fundamental to stable society<br />Classic of Filial Piety – subordination of women<br />Admonitions of Women – Ban Zhao <br />Emphasized humility, obedience, subservience, devotion to husbands<br />
    45. 45. Iron Metallurgy<br />Iron industry grows under Han<br />Cultivators used iron shovels, picks, hoes, sickles and spades<br />Craftsmen – iron utensils, pots, stoves, knives, needles, axes, hammer, saws<br />Iron armor, sharper swords, spears and arrowheads<br />
    46. 46. Silk Textiles<br />Sericulture expands beyond Yellow River<br />Chinese silk becomes prized commodity – leads to network of trade known as Silk Roads<br />Cultivation of silkworms<br />Breeding<br />Diet control<br />Other silk-producing lands relied on wild worms<br />
    47. 47. Paper<br />Development of paper<br /><ul><li>Bamboo, fabric abandoned in favor of wood and textile-based paper</li></ul>Less expensive<br />
    48. 48. Population Growth<br />Agricultural prosperity = demographic growth<br />Taxes claimed small portion of production<br />Surplus grain in state granaries often spoiled<br />
    49. 49. Economic Social Difficulties<br />Han Wudi’s expansion into Central Asia caused economic strain<br />Xiongnu expeditions<br />Agricultural colonies<br />Han Wudi raises taxes, confiscates land from wealthy<br />Actions discouraged investment<br />
    50. 50. Social Tensions<br />Gap between rich and poor grows<br />Lived very different lifestyles<br />Differences led to tensions<br />Peasant organize rebellions<br />
    51. 51. Land Distribution<br />Poor harvest, taxes led to land loss for some<br />Increase in slavery and tenant farmers<br />Land holdings of wealthy grow<br />Banditry rebellion<br />Government on side of wealthy<br />
    52. 52. The reign of Wang Mang (9-23 C.E.)<br />Wang Mang regent for 2-year old Emperor, 6 CE<br />Takes power himself 9 CE<br />Introduces massive reforms<br />The “socialist emperor”<br />Land redistribution, but poorly handled<br />Social chaos ends in his assassination 23 CE<br />
    53. 53. The Later Han Dynasty<br />Han Dynasty emperors manage, with difficulty, to reassert control<br />Centralized power regained<br /> Reorganized bureaucracy<br />Controlled Xiongnu and Silk Roads<br />
    54. 54. The Yellow Turban Uprising<br />Social tensions not addressed in Later Han Dynasty<br />Serious revolt throughout China in late second century C.E.<br />Rebellions weakened the Han state<br />
    55. 55. The Collapse of the Han Dynasty<br />Imperial court developed factions<br />Rivalries to protect self interests, influence<br />Internal conflicts weakened central government<br />Early 3rd century B.C.E. – central government disintegrates<br />For 4 centuries, China divided into several large regional empires<br />
    56. 56. Summary<br />Qin – 14 years, opened new era in Chinese History<br />Unification of rule<br />Created a Chinese society<br />Han Dynasty – over 400 years<br />Centralized bureaucracy<br />Technological innovation<br />Spread Chinese culture<br />