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Mongols & Japan Online

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Teaching the Mongols to 8th graders

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Mongols & Japan Online

  1. 1. THE MONGOL EMPIRE
  2. 2. Fear This! <ul><li>In the 1200s, the time of the Crusades, a great and much feared empire was born in Asia . </li></ul><ul><li>In great part it was created by one of the most powerful and ruthless men in history. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Like Rome they started out with very little. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mongols were not united . </li></ul><ul><li>They lived in many different tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Had constant blood feuds . </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic . Great horsemen . </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Lived north of the Great Wall of China . </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>One man will unite them… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temujin : son of a chieftain. His father was murdered. He was forced into hiding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survived on mice for a time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conquered the tribe that forced him out. Every male taller than a cart axle was executed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enemy chiefs were boiled alive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had his own brother crushed with rocks. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. I’m a uniter not a divider! <ul><li>United all Mongol tribes by force then changed his name to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genghis Khan : (1167-1227 A.D.) “Universal ruler” Ruler of all things under the stars. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Under Khan the Mongols are turned into a war machine! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All males in army until 60. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion by merit and skill only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incredibly skilled archers and horsemen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bows easily pierced armor. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>The Mongol War Bow: Fear this! </li></ul><ul><li>Average draw weight: 160 lbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Fire a distance of 300 yards </li></ul><ul><li>Composite made from yak bone, sinew, wood and glue made from fish bladders </li></ul><ul><li>Not until the mid-1800’s that firearms outranged the war bow </li></ul>
  8. 10. Always practicing… <ul><li>Great Hunt : Mongol method of practicing warfare. </li></ul><ul><li>Encircle hundreds of miles. </li></ul><ul><li>Spend days closing the circle. </li></ul><ul><li>Once closed use their bows to eliminate all wildlife within. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Conquests of Khan <ul><li>Don’t mess with Genghis’ camels! </li></ul>
  10. 12. Genghis invades Muslim Khwarizm <ul><li>Khwarizm – powerful Muslim state in area of Afghanistan. </li></ul><ul><li>Mongols capture civilians. </li></ul><ul><li>Drive them before their armies as human shields. </li></ul><ul><li>Use civilians to fill moats and build ramps over city walls. </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation networks destroyed, orchards burned, salt sown in fields. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Allah save us all! <ul><li>Otrar : town whose governer seized Genghis’ caravan . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City fell after five months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population massacred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molten silver poured into governor’s ears and eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urgench : capital of Khwarizm. City falls after 7 days of fierce resistance by the cities’ population. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All within killed - 1.2 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoo animals slaughtered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graves are emptied, bodies mangled </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Khwarizm is destroyed
  13. 15. Muslims are terrified… <ul><li>Muslims ask Christians to end crusades and unite against Mongols. </li></ul><ul><li>Christians laugh! </li></ul><ul><li>Crusaders ask Mongols for help against Muslims. Genghis replies… </li></ul><ul><li>“ Acknowledge me as overlord or die.” </li></ul>
  14. 16. Death of Genghis Khan <ul><li>Thrown from his horse while invading China. </li></ul><ul><li>Buried secretly with gold, horses and 40 women. </li></ul><ul><li>Horses trample the site for three days. 2,000 that attended the funeral are killed by 800 soldiers. The 800 soldiers are then later killed. </li></ul><ul><li>Tomb has never been found! </li></ul>
  15. 17. Mongol Conquests Continue! <ul><li>Ogodei Khan : drunken son of Genghis becomes ruler. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promises only to drink two cups day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has bigger and bigger cups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fermented mare’s milk. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Batu Khan : Genghis’ grandson and general under Ogodei. Invades Europe. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sends message “Surrender or be destroyed.” European kingdoms laugh. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Maybe we can call the Muslims for help? <ul><li>150,000 Mongol horsemen invade Poland on three fronts! </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Leignitz : Polish army composed of 100,000 men face 40,000 Mongol horsemen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes many thousands of church knights -Teutonic Knights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the finest armies ever assembled in Europe! </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Deathmatch at Leignitz 100,000 European soldiers 40,000 Mongol horsemen
  18. 20. Knights charge! Go knights! Mongol Invasion: The Battle of Leignitz Foot soldiers
  19. 21. Knights charge ! Go knights! Mongol Invasion: The Battle of Leignitz
  20. 22. <ul><li>Mongols retreat (feigned) </li></ul><ul><li>Knights think they’ve won and chase. </li></ul><ul><li>Foot soldiers can’t keep up. </li></ul><ul><li>Huge gap opens up in Eur. army. </li></ul>Mongol Invasion: The Battle of Leignitz
  21. 23. <ul><li>Suddenly the Mongols stop and turn forming a half-circle. </li></ul><ul><li>They load their bows and fire. </li></ul>Mongol Invasion: The Battle of Leignitz
  22. 24. <ul><li>The arrows go completely over the knights into the gap! </li></ul><ul><li>What lousy shots. </li></ul>Mongol Invasion: The Battle of Leignitz
  23. 25. <ul><li>Smoke arrows! The gap fills with smoke. </li></ul><ul><li>Now the Mongols turn their bows on the knights. </li></ul>Mongol Invasion: The Battle of Leignitz
  24. 26. <ul><li>The arrows shred the knight’s armor. Aaaaaggghhh! </li></ul>Mongol Invasion: The Battle of Leignitz
  25. 27. <ul><li>With the knights dead, the Mongols charge into the smoke and run down the infantry! </li></ul>Mongol Invasion: The Battle of Leignitz
  26. 28. Mongol Invasion: The Battle of Leignitz
  27. 29. <ul><li>To prove his great victory to Ogodei, Batu orders his men to collect nine sacks of </li></ul>Mongol Invasion: The Battle of Leignitz … ears.
  28. 30. OH GOODDDDDD! <ul><li>In Hungary another Mongol army destroys a 100,000 strong Hungarian force. </li></ul><ul><li>Europe PANICS! </li></ul><ul><li>Pope issues crusade to save all Christendom. </li></ul><ul><li>Then Mongols disappear. </li></ul><ul><li>We scared them off! </li></ul><ul><li>Ogodei drank himself to death and Batu had to return to elect a new Khan. Never returns. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Europe saved from a new Dark Age.
  30. 33. Marco…Polo… <ul><li>Marco Polo : Venetian trader serves Kublai Khan for 17 years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Returns to Venice and his story is written in a book “Description of the World.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Story is a sensation in Europe telling of the wonders and riches of China. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 36. Genghis Khan…the George Washington of Mongolia
  32. 38. Medieval Japan <ul><li>Land of feudal kingdoms and samurai knights </li></ul><ul><li>Shogun : “general” feudal leaders and commanders of the military. (Lords) </li></ul><ul><li>Samurai : “one who serves” armored warrior. Bamboo plated armor. Carried a longbow and the katana. </li></ul>
  33. 39. I call mine pointy stick! <ul><li>Katana : “big sword” incredibly sharp curved sword. Cut leaves in a stream. Took years to make. </li></ul><ul><li>Wakizashi : “little sword” smaller curved sword at the belt. Use it to take the head of your honored opponent. </li></ul>
  34. 44. All samurai lived by a code of honor like chivalry <ul><li>Bushido : “The way” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All loyalty to your shogun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death rather than dishonor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vengeance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Death is lighter than a feather, but duty is weightier than a mountain.” </li></ul>
  35. 45. IF YOU DO DISHONOR YOURSELF THERE IS ONE WAY TO REGAIN HONOR! <ul><li>Seppuku! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hari-kari : kneel and with your short sword disembowel yourself. </li></ul></ul>

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