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THE MIDDLE KINGDOM OF CHINA: DYNASTIES AND CHANGE

An introduction to pre 1911 China, and an overview of China's main dynasties and leaders. A great beginning for Chapter 4 Cambridge AS History chapter - International relations in an age of development - China and Japan. Please send me a message if you want to download this for educational purpose.

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THEMIDDLEKINGDOMOFCHINA
DYNASTIESANDCHANGE
Pre 1900
• Chinese Society remained
largely unchanged for
thousands of years.
• Government and
administration was based
on the teaching of the
philosopher Confucius
(551-479 BC).
• Based on moral values
and respect for others.
Best way to learn was
through meditation.
Royal houses that ruled China with their
own specific characteristics. Names for
each dynasty were often chosen for
superstitious or poetic reasons, unlike in
Europe where
dynasty names
followed the
house’s family
name.
The Dynasties
The Dynasties
Chinese history is divided into dynasties – period
whereby the country is ruled by one royal family.
The Dynasties
• The achievements
of the various
imperial families
and their subjects
provide the world’s
oldest and richest
culture.
• The Chinese were
one of the most
advanced people
in the world – skilled
in astronomy,
engineering and
medicine
The Dynasties - Inventions
Suspension Bridges Gunpowder
Spectacles
Magnetic Compass

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THE MIDDLE KINGDOM OF CHINA: DYNASTIES AND CHANGE

  • 2. Pre 1900 • Chinese Society remained largely unchanged for thousands of years. • Government and administration was based on the teaching of the philosopher Confucius (551-479 BC). • Based on moral values and respect for others. Best way to learn was through meditation.
  • 3. Royal houses that ruled China with their own specific characteristics. Names for each dynasty were often chosen for superstitious or poetic reasons, unlike in Europe where dynasty names followed the house’s family name. The Dynasties
  • 4. The Dynasties Chinese history is divided into dynasties – period whereby the country is ruled by one royal family.
  • 5. The Dynasties • The achievements of the various imperial families and their subjects provide the world’s oldest and richest culture. • The Chinese were one of the most advanced people in the world – skilled in astronomy, engineering and medicine
  • 6. The Dynasties - Inventions Suspension Bridges Gunpowder Spectacles Magnetic Compass
  • 7. The Tang Dynasty The Tang Dynasty is the most influential empire of China’s civilization. During the Tang Dynasty, China achieved the peak of its civilization and became the centre of trade in the east.
  • 8. The Qin Dynasty Structures such as the Great Wall of China date back to the Qin Dynasty of 221-206BC. Although much of the wall we see today is from the Ming Dynasty of 1368-1677
  • 9. The Forbidden City The emperors enjoyed beautiful palaces like the Forbidden City
  • 14. Exquisite porcelain, named China by the westerners
  • 15. • Beginning of 20th Century, China governed by the Qing (Machu) Dynasty from Manchuria. • They had destroyed the Ming Dynasty in 1700s. • Followed the traditional ideas of Confucianism – remained undeveloped in terms of its transport network, industry and army. The Qing (Manchu) Dynasty
  • 16. • Traditionalists looked down on Western technology and science • Trade was heavily restricted to one season a year and only in Canton (Canton system) • Did not want Western goods - something that began to anger the West. The Qing (Manchu) Dynasty
  • 17. The Decline of The Dynasties By the end of the 19th century however the empire was in terminal decline. It was torn by internal rebellion, corruption, inefficiency, opium abuse and a stultifying conservatism which frustrated all attempts at reform and regeneration.
  • 18. China’s culture was old and her infrastructure, wonderfully effective a thousand years before, was inadequate for her 20th century population. The Decline of The Dynasties
  • 19. The Decline of The Dynasties China cities like Hangzhou seen here, were medieval. The taxes on trade were crippling.
  • 20. The Decline of The Dynasties China’s education system was respected but it was old type. The justice system was seen as barbaric by the Western standards.
  • 21. Farmworkers’ life was very difficult
  • 22. To make matters worse the long despised foreign devils, making full use of their technological advances, humiliated the Chinese in a series of aggressive wars lead by the British in the first Opium War (1839–1842) and the first of the unequal treaties that followed. Foreign powers had divided China up into what they called ‘spheres of influence’. China lost face and the Qing Dynasty was seen as weak. The Decline of The Dynasties
  • 23. The 1894 defeat at the hands of the newly modernised Japan was a humiliation. The Decline of The Dynasties
  • 25. Agitation against the foreigners and their threat to Chinese culture as well as Chinese territory exploded in the Boxer Rebellion of 1900. Foreigners and especially Christians were their target. A six nation force was sent to invade China and crush the rebellion. The Decline of The Dynasties
  • 26. Following the Boxer Revolution, the most famous of the revolutionaries against the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty was Sun Yat Sen. He was educated in Hawaii, and trained as a doctor in Hong Kong. What he saw on his travels made him feel China was backwards and weak. He felt the only hope was to modernise China like the West. Sun Yat Sen
  • 27. Sun Yat Sen Sun Yat Sen had three main aims: 1. Nationalism - Eliminate the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty and foreign imperialism 2. Democracy - Eliminate the Monarchy – rule through elected government and western ideas 3. Socialism – Lives of peasants must be improved and industry and transport modernised. Take land away from rich land lords and give it to the people.
  • 28. Sun Yat Sen 1905 he founded ‘Tongmenghui’ or ‘Sworn Chinese Brotherhood’ However, by 1911 he had attempted to overthrow the government 10 times and all had failed!
  • 29. • 1908 Empress Dowager Ci Xi died. • Successor - 2 year old Nephew named Pu Yi • Power of rule was given to a Regent, Prince Chun – highly imperial, conservative and disliked change • Discharged many powerful officials including chief military commander Yuan Shi Kai. • 1911 saw the worst harvest in 40 years. Wealthy opposed heavy taxes to pay for ‘New Army’ • 90% Chinese population was (and still is)Han Chinese. Resentful toward a government dominated by the Manchus (who were effectively an ethnic minority). The Last years of the Manchus
  • 30. The Wuchang Rebellion • Sept 1911 – Start of rebellion in Sichuan Province. Caused by police firing on a crowd of demonstrators. • ‘Sworn Chinese Brotherhood’ went to spread the rebellion. • 10 Oct – ‘Double Ten’ – New Army in Wuchang joined the rising.
  • 31. The Wuchang Rebellion • Rebellion quickly spread through central and southern China to become a full scale revolution. • Nov 1911 – 15 of the countries 18 provinces had joined the revolution. • Nanjing – Rebels formed a provisional Government.
  • 32. Yuan Shi Kai • Manchus recalled Yuan Shi Kai from retirement to crush rebellion. • Made Prime Minister and Commander in Chief of Army • Quickly defeated the rebels at Wuchang, but made a deal with their leaders. • He would use power to persuade Monarch to step down and take office as President of the Republic.
  • 33. Contest for Leadership • Sun Yat Sen was in America during these events. On return he was made President of ‘The United Provinces of China’ in Nanjing. • Contest – Sun Yat Sen (support of the rebels) vs. Yuan Shi Kai (support of the army). • Yuan with his power persuaded assembly that he should be president – elected Feb. 1912. • Sun resigned without protest to avoid a civil war.
  • 34. Contest for Leadership 12 February 1912 Prince Chun and Emperor Pu Yi abdicated from the ‘Dragon Throne’ of Manchus