Chinese And Korean Art After 1279 Emily Andrew Sam

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Chinese And Korean Art After 1279 Emily Andrew Sam

  1. 1. Andrew Maude Emily Nadelmann<br />Samantha D’Onofrio<br />Chinese and Korean Art After 1279<br />
  2. 2. Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368)<br />Ming Dynasty (1368–1644)<br />Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)<br />Modern Period (1911- Present)<br />Periods of Control- China <br />
  3. 3. Mongols established northern capital in Beijing <br />Combined the tensions of Yuan rule, separation of Chinese political and cultural centers created a new situation dynamic in the arts<br />Literati (cultural elite) painting came to be grouped with calligraphy and poetry as a trio of accomplishments<br />Yuan Dynasty ( 1279-1368)<br />
  4. 4. The literati elevated the status of painting so they were totally separate from and superior to traditional painting<br />The Yuan dynasty continued the imperial role of patron of the arts commissioning building and murals, gardens, paintings, and decorative arts <br />Scholars now tended to turn inward to search for solution of their own to try to express themselves in personal and symbolic terms <br />The Literati <br />
  5. 5. ZhaoMengfu (1254-1322)<br />Most famous piece- Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains <br />Piece depicts the mountains of Shandong province <br />1296, handscroll, ink and color on paper. 11 ¼ x 36 inches<br />Not painted in the modern naturalistic period of his time, but the archaic period of the Tand dynasty (618-907)<br />
  6. 6. Common techniques were unassuming brushworks, and subtle colors used sparingly <br />The landscape was created to covey personal meaning (drawing from one literati to another) <br />the literati did not create works for public display but for each other<br />
  7. 7. Favored small formats such as hand scrolls, hanging scrolls, and album leaves(book pages) <br />Easily could be shown to friends at small gatherings<br />Pieces usually entirely done in ink<br />Calligraphy popularly used to describe meaning <br />Mediums and Techniques <br />
  8. 8. <ul><li>They favored handscrolls, hanging scrolls, or album leaves</li></li></ul><li>RongxiStudio <br />Ni Zan created the Rongxi Studio<br />Done completely out of ink<br />1372, hanging scroll, ink on paper. <br />29 3/8 inches<br />It depicts the lake district of Ni’s hometown<br />It is sketched with minimum detail using dry brush technique (brush not fully loaded with ink)<br />
  9. 9. Style has a sense of simplicity and purity<br />Embodies the Literati style <br />It is believed to reflect a painter s personality<br />Zan’s style became associated with noble spirit, many other painters pay homage to it<br />Ni Zan (1301-74)<br />
  10. 10. Contrast between luxury of the court and austere ideals of the literati continued<br />Founded by Tai Zu who came from the poor uneducated class<br />Worked his way up to power through military <br />Drove Mongols from Beijing and established himself as emperor – establishing the Ming Dynasty <br /> He grew to distrust intellectuals<br />His rules was despotic and ruthless <br />Court taste in the arts changed with rule <br />Ming Dynasty (1368–1644)<br />
  11. 11. Hundreds of Birds Admiring Peacocks<br />Large painting on silk by Yin Hong<br />Late 15th-early 16th century, hanging scroll, ink and color on silk, 7’10 ½ inches<br />Painted during the late 15th and early 16th centuries <br />Example of bird and flower genre<br />Homage of birds to peacocks is symbolic to the homage of the court officials to the emperor<br />Much of the piece reflects the ideals of the Song academy <br />
  12. 12. A bolder and less constrained landscape style<br />Roots in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province where the Southern Court was located<br />Influenced Korean + Japanese painters<br />Zhe Style<br />Returning Home from a Spring Outing (Dai Jin)<br /><ul><li>Reflects Chinese sources for An Gyeon + Sesshu
  13. 13. Hanging scroll on silk
  14. 14. 167.8 x 83.1 cm </li></li></ul><li>Qui Ying (1492-1552)<br />Spring Dawn in the Han Palace<br />The preeminent professional painter in the Ming period<br />Painted beautiful long hand scrolls <br />Started painting to satisfy patrons <br />Studies Tang paintings- concentrated on figures, leaving out the background entirely<br /><ul><li>Detail of sections
  15. 15. the piece depicts women in the court of the Han dynasty
  16. 16. Long handscroll on silk
  17. 17. 1’ x 18’ 13/16 inches </li></li></ul><li>Extremely famous in the Ming Dynasty<br />Exquisite ceramics made of porcelain <br />The imperial kilns in Jianqxi province became the most renowned center for porcelain in the world<br />Lotus leafs drawn with glazed covering, showed high achievement of Ming artists<br />Noteworthy for their blue + white wares<br />Mainly produced during the reign of the Xuande Emperor (1426-1435)<br />Ming Blue and White Wares <br />
  18. 18. Architecture and City Planning of the Ming<br />Most famous remaining example of Chinese architecture is the Forbidden city, the imperial palace compound in Beijing<br />City planning began in the 7th century in China<br />Mongols made the basic plan- city laid out-traditional Chinese principles<br /> Walled city, with a rectangular grid, with evenly spaced streets, running east, west, north and south<br />Northern end is where imperial complex is located<br />Emperor’s role as the son of heaven- his duty to maintain the cosmic order from his throne in the middle of the world<br />The Forbidden City’s balance and symmetry reflect ancient Chinese beliefs about the harmony of the universe <br />
  19. 19. Beijing was laid in a similar format<br />Many halls located inside The Forbidden City<br />Courtyards included ponds, that connected to waterways, that with bridges<br />Marble detailing throughout<br />Emperor’s throne was located in the Hall of Supreme Harmony<br />The characteristics of the literati influence on architecture was very similar to painting <br />
  20. 20. Map of the Forbidden City<br />
  21. 21. Literati influence furniture as well<br />16th + 17th Centuries: Chinese furniture made for domestic use reached the height of its development <br />Constructed without the use of glue or nails<br /> Pieces fit together based on principle of mortise-and-tenon joint, one piece fits snuggly into the cavity of another <br />This style represented simplicity, clarity, symmetry, and balance all literati ideals<br />Furniture <br />
  22. 22. Known more today as tong and grove <br />Modern Day Reference <br />
  23. 23. Many literati surrounded their homes with gardens<br />Most famous gardens: southern cities of the Yangzi River (Chang Jiang) delta, especially in Suzhou<br />Art of Landscape Gardening<br />The Garden of the Cessation of Official Life<br /><ul><li>1/3 of garden is devoted to water through artificially created brooks + ponds
  24. 24. Pavilions, kiosks, libraries, studios + corridors
  25. 25. Many buildings have poetic names</li></li></ul><li>high official in late Ming period- poet, calligrapher, + painter<br />literati theorist, who summarized views on proper training for literati painters <br />famous statement “Read ten thousand books and walk ten thousand miles.”<br />21’8 x 7’4 3/8 inches-1617<br />Don Qichang, Literari Theorist<br />Poet on A Mountain Top<br /><ul><li>Focuses on the poet who dominates the scene
  26. 26. Poet on top of the mountain
  27. 27. not a real focus on landscape</li></li></ul><li>1644- Manchu people to the northeast of China marched into Beijing and gained control of all of China<br />Manchus had already many Chinese customs + institutions before their conquest<br />Manchus showed respect for Chinese tradition- continued to follow literati approach <br />Ming trends continued into the Qing Dynasty<br />Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)<br />
  28. 28. Wang Hui (1632-1717)<br />Painted “A Thousand Peaks and Myriad Ravines” in 1693<br />Exemplified basic Chinese landscape painting, featuring: mountains, rivers, waterfalls, trees, rocks, temples, pavilions, houses, bridges, boats, wandering scholars, and fishers <br /><ul><li>Hanging scroll, 1693, 8’2.5 x 44.5’ </li></li></ul><li>Modern Period (1911- Present)<br />Pine Spirit<br />All aspects of Chinese art modernizing <br />Landscape still remains important subject<br />New ideas filtered in from around the globe<br />Calligraphy also plays an important role<br />Chinese artists now have joined the international avant-garde<br /><ul><li>Wu Guanzhong- new aged Chinese artist
  29. 29. 1984, Ink and color on paper, 2’3 5/8 x 5’3.5 inches
  30. 30. Abstract expressionism</li></li></ul><li>Korean Art <br />The Joseon Dynasty to the Modern Era<br />
  31. 31. 1392- General Yi Seonggye overthrew the Goryeo dynasty and established the Joseon Dynasty<br />Capital: originally Gaeseong, but moved to Seoul in 1394<br />Rejected Buddhism- advocating Neo-Classicism as state philosophy<br />China’s Ming Dynasty was a model- copied Ming emperors + blue-and-white porcelain<br />Early Joseon Era: invented Han’geul (alphabet), the rain gauge, astrolabe, celestial globe + water clock<br />The Joseon/Yi Dynasty (1392-1920)<br />
  32. 32. Joseon potters excelled in the manufacture of ceramics<br />Ceramics were influenced by Chinese wares of that period, but they didn’t copy them directly<br />Joseon Ceramics<br />
  33. 33. Buncheong Wares<br />Stoneware descended from Goryeo celadons<br />Use of white slip- stoneware resembles white porcelain<br />15th century: slip is inlaid into repeating design elements stamped into the body<br />16th century: embellished w/ fluid, calligraphic brushwork painted in iron-brown slip on white slip background <br />Most buncheong wares have floral décor, some feature pictorial decoration<br />1592-1597: Japanese armies invaded the Korean peninsula<br />destroyed buncheong kilns + took buncheongpotters home with them to produce buncheong style-wares<br />
  34. 34. Buncheongware that features pictorial decoration<br />Fresh, lively brushstrokes- a bird w/ outstretched wings grasps a fish that it has just caught in its talongs; waves roll below, while 2 giant lotus blossoms frame the scene<br />Horizontal Wine Bottle with Decoration of a Bird Carrying a Newly Caught Fish<br />
  35. 35. Beginning in 15th century- Korean potters produced porcelains w/ designs in underglaze cobalt blue<br />Inspired by Chinese Ming porcelains<br />Porcelain kilns- 30 miles south of Seoul<br />Painting on best Korean porcelains resembled that on paper or silk<br />16th + 17th century: Korean porcelains feature designs painted in underglaze iron bronze rather than blue<br />Korean jars have bulging shoulders, slender bases + short, vertical necks in the 17th century<br />Painted Porcelain<br />
  36. 36. Secular painting continued Goryeo traditions- employed Chinese styles + formats<br />Range of subjects expand from botanical motifs to include landscapes, figures, + a variety of animals<br />Joseon Painting<br />Dream Journey to the Peach Blossom Land- An Gyeon- 1447<br /><ul><li>Illustrates tale by Chinese poet Tao Qian
  37. 37. 15.25’ x 41’ 7/8 inches
  38. 38. Recounts a dream about chancing upon a utopia secluded from the world for centuries while meandering among the peach blossoms of spring</li></li></ul><li>18th century- truly Korean style emerged<br />Silhak“practical learning” movement- emphasized the study of things Korean in addition to the Chinese classics<br />JeongSeon chose well-known Korean vistas as the subjects of his paintings, rather than the Chinese themes favored by earlier artists<br />Painted representations of the Diamond Mtns, <br />Sin Yunbok active in late 18th, early 19th century- typically painted aristocratic figures in native Korean garb<br />The Silhak Movement<br />Panoramic View of the Diamond Mountains- JeongSeon<br />Picnic at the Lotus Pond- <br />Sin Yunbok<br />
  39. 39. “The Hermit Kingdom”- Korea closed its borders to most of the world, except China, until 1876<br />1910- Japan annexed Korea- ended the Joseon Dynasty<br />self-imposed isolation, colonial occupation (1910-45), World War II (1939-45), + the Korean War (1950-53) impeded Korea’s artistic + cultural development during the first half of the twentieth century<br />Modern Korea<br />
  40. 40. Despite isolation- modern influences reached Korea indirectly via China + Japan<br />1920s-30s: few Korean artists experimented w/ contemporary Western styles (Cezanne or Ganguin) and sometimes tried abstract, nonrepresentational styles<br />GimHwangi- artist influenced by constructivism + geometric abstraction- would become one of 20th centuries most influential painters<br />Modernism in Korea<br />5-IV-71<br /><ul><li>1971
  41. 41. Oil on canvas
  42. 42. 100 x 100 cm</li>

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