East Asia Review


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Slides reviewing the history of East Asia prior to Industrialization

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East Asia Review

  1. 1. East Asia Review <ul><li>Spring Final, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Castro </li></ul>
  2. 3. China
  3. 4. Geography <ul><li>Geography of China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taklamakan to the west; Gobi to the north </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Himalayas to the southwest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Huang He in the north; Yangtze to the south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90% of arable land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Huang He deposits yellow silt ( loess ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Settlement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First immigrants 1.7 mya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First settlers around Beijing, 500,000 ya </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Shang Dynasty <ul><li>Settlements along Huang He, 2000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Shang Dynasty, 1532 to 1027 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Left written records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital city of Anyang </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>located in a forest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher classes lived inside the walls; poor outside </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warrior-kings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronze technology for war, not agriculture </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Family was emphasized; women as inferiors; arranged marriages of daughters </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestor worship began with the Shang </li></ul><ul><li>Oracle bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>could communicate with ancestors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bore the beginnings of Chinese ideographic writing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shang were the first to make silk </li></ul>
  6. 7. Zhou Dynasty <ul><li>1027 BCE , Zhou overthrow the Shang </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Justify overthrow with the Mandate of Heaven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Mandate of Heaven forms the basis of the dynastic cycle . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zhou control countryside with a system called feudalism . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land owns to the King; grants right to use to lords in exchange for loyalty & military service. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Zhou tech: roads, canals, iron </li></ul><ul><li>771 BCE nomads sack Hao; king moves capital; Zhou pretend to rule until 256 BCE . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Period of Warring States </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Confucianism <ul><li>Confucius , born around 551 BCE, lived during the Zhou Dynasty – and at the same time as Plato. </li></ul><ul><li>He believed in Five Basic Relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruler :: Subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Father :: Son </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Husband :: Wife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older Brother :: Younger Brother </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friend :: Friend </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>The Five Basic Relationships were based on an ideal of filial piety , respect for parents and elders. </li></ul><ul><li>Confucius served as the Minister of Justice </li></ul><ul><li>His writings were collected by students into the Analects , and knowledge of these texts served as the basis for the civil service exam. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Daoism <ul><li>Daoists seek the harmony of the natural order. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daoism was founded by Laozi and written as the Dao De Ching ( The way of Virtue ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daoists pursued scientific study of alchemy, astronomy, and medicine </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Legalism <ul><li>Li Si and Hanfeizi emphasized that the rule of law was the only thing that could restore order during the Period of the Warring States; this was the basis for Legalism . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They controlled behavior with rich rewards and harsh punishments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They controlled thoughts and beliefs by burning books and executing teachers. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Qin Dynasty <ul><li>The Qin Dynasty was short lived (221 to 202 BCE) because Shi Huangdi’s son was just as cruel, but not as good a ruler. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shi Huangdi followed Legalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He doubled the size of China, burned books, forced the nobles to live inside the capital city, and completed to Great Wall . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shi Huangdi’s son was overthrown by a Han peasant army in 202 BCE. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Han Dynasty (202 BCE -220 CE) <ul><li>Liu Bang became the first Han Emperor in 202 BCE. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liu Bang relaxed the Legalist policies and lowered taxes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When Liu Bang died, his son was too young to rule, so Empress Wu took the throne. </li></ul><ul><li>Wudi , Liu Bang’s great-grandson, ruled from 141 to 87 BCE as a martial emperor . </li></ul><ul><li>Wang Mang overthrows the Han. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Sui Dynasty (589 – 618) lasted for only two emperors, but did manage to complete the great canal between the Huang He and the Yangtze. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Tang Dynasty (618 – 907) <ul><li>Tang Taizong reconquered northern China. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowered taxes; took land from the rich and gave to the poor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scholar-officials gained more power than noblity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empress Wu Zhao ruled as China conquered Korea again. </li></ul><ul><li>In 751 the Tang lose to Arab soldiers in the Battle of Talas ; signifies the loss of the Mandate of Heaven. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Song Dynasty (960-1279) <ul><li>Concentrated on defense of China, not reconquest of lost lands. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to bribe the Jurchen ; Jurchen invade northern China and Song family flees south. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Song & Tang inventions <ul><li>Porcelain , Mechanical Clock , Printing , Gunpowder , Paper money , and Magnetic compass . </li></ul><ul><li>Song import a fast-growing rice from Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>China concentrates on sea-trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of the gentry . </li></ul><ul><li>Foot-binding among Chinese women. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Yuan Dynasty <ul><li>1279-1368 </li></ul><ul><li>Ogadai conquered northern China </li></ul><ul><li>Kublai Khan completed the invasion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First unification of China in 300 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opened China to greater foreign contact and trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respected Chinese customs and traditions; changed very little in China </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Kublai Khan attempted to invade Japan in 1279 and 1281 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2nd fleet was the largest seaborne invasion force until D-Day, but it was defeated by kamikaze . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mongols gave highest gov’t jobs to Mongols and foreigners, like Marco Polo . </li></ul><ul><li>Hongwu led revolt against Mongols. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Ming Dynasty <ul><li>1368-1644 </li></ul><ul><li>After Mongols, Hongwu returned to traditional Chinese administrative beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>administrative jobs based on merit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>restored agricultural lands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduced fish farming and commercial crops such as cotton and sugar cane </li></ul><ul><li>Yonglo was more curious </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>1405 , launched first of the seven voyages of Zheng He . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The last voyage ended in 1433 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese officials dismantled the shipyards, burned books, and forbade ocean-going voyages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Began the policy of isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Christian missionaries, such as the Jesuit Matteo Ricci , traveled to China </li></ul>
  21. 22. Qing Dynasty <ul><li>1644-1912 </li></ul><ul><li>The Manchus invaded over the northeast edge of the Great Wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>brought Taiwan, Central Asia, Mongolia, and Tibet into China </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Favored the Dutch in trade over the British </li></ul>
  22. 23. Japan
  23. 24. <ul><li>4,000 island archipelago that stretches for 1,200 miles. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 15% is arable land. </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest religion is Shinto , a form of animism, referred to as the “way of the gods” that respected the kami of all things. </li></ul><ul><li>By 500 CE, the Yamato clan starts consolidating power. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Learning from China <ul><li>Korean travelers brought Buddhism to Japan which blends with Shinto. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan sends missions to study the Tang; they bring back ideographic writing , painting style, and system of government. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central government doesn’t work in Japan because of the fragmentation of the islands. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Heian Court <ul><li>794 – 1185, court is in Heian (modern Kyoto). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Etiquette, art, poetry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fujiwara family controls the real power. </li></ul><ul><li>Large landowners begin funding private armies of samurai who follow Bushido , “the way of the warrior”. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Kamakura Shogunate <ul><li>After a civil war, the Emperor gives the title of Shogun to the Minamoto family who rules from Kamakura. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daimyo rule provinces as governors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Kamakura fend off the Mongol invasion attempts in 1274 and 1281. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Warring States Period <ul><li>1467-1568, Sengoku , “Warring States” </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor at Kyoto as figurehead only; daimyo become feudal lords </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fortified castles; samurai on horseback; footsoldiers with muskets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oda Nobunaga defeats rival daimyo and captures Kyoto in 1568, but cannot unite Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Toyotomi Hideyoshi continues the attempt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invades Korea in 1592 </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Tokugawa Shogunate <ul><li>1600-1867 </li></ul><ul><li>Tokugawa Ieyasu unites Japan, moves the capital to Edo (later renamed Tokyo) </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-1700s, rural japan was changing to an urban society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers crushed under taxes, moved to cities for jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commerce grows </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Kabuki theater, haiku , and noh dramas entertain </li></ul><ul><li>1543, shipwrecked Portuguese bring contact with Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Christian missionaries in 1549 </li></ul><ul><li>1637, peasant uprising leads to closed country policy in 1639. </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation lasts until 1853 </li></ul>
  30. 31. Southeast Asia
  31. 32. SE Asia Geography <ul><li>Mainland peninsula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Islands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sumatra, Borneo, and Java </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Straits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strait of Malacca between the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sundra Strait between Sumatra and Java </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>India influences the Indian Ocean side of the mainland peninsula because of the monsoon trade . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduism dominates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Khmer in Cambodia build Angkor Wat to Vishnu </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Sailendra rule on Java and build the Borobodur as a Buddhist monument. </li></ul><ul><li>Srivijaya conquer the Salendra and gain control of the Strait of Malacca . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grow wealthy charging fees to allow passage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sumatra becomes a center of Buddhist learning in SE Asia. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Vietnam <ul><li>The Vietnamese were under Chinese control for 1,000 years but broke away from the weakened Tang Dynasty is 900 CE. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ly Dynasty (1009 – 1225) build their capital in Hanoi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Mongols try conquering Vietnam three times, but fail. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>French colonization of Indochine , 1887-1954, under orders of Emperor Napoleon III </li></ul>
  35. 36. Dutch East India Company <ul><li>Chartered in 1602 </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to control the global spice trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seized Melaka from the Portuguese and took Java away from the British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dutch expand control over Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, the Moluccas, and Bali. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The company takes over Indonesia, then called Dutch East Indies </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Korea
  37. 38. <ul><li>Much of Korea is barren mountain lands. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 108 BC, the Han conquer Korea. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Silla unite with other clans and defeat the Han in the mid-600s. </li></ul><ul><li>Koryu Dynasty (935 - 1392) defeat the Silla and set up a flawed examination system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1231 Mongols invade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Chosun Dynasty defeats the Mongols in 1392. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-carve 81,000 lost Buddhist texts. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>1636, Manchus invade </li></ul><ul><li>Korea becomes China’s “little brother” under the Manchus </li></ul><ul><li>The Manchu invasion, plus the Mongolian invasions, and then Japan’s invasion in the 1590s leads to an increase in Korean nationalism </li></ul>
  39. 40. Quiz
  40. 41. <ul><li>Which of the following best describes the basis of the ruler’s authority in Zhou China? </li></ul><ul><li>The ruler was chosen and favored by heaven, and held power as long as he was a wise and principled guardian of his people </li></ul><ul><li>The ruler was believed to be a god himself, and so his authority could not be questioned </li></ul><ul><li>The ruler depended heavily on his staff, so real authority lay in the hands of the bureaucrats </li></ul><ul><li>The ruler was selected by a handful of elite aristocrats who also had the authority to remove him from office </li></ul><ul><li>The ruler was a military leader who held power as long as he was victorious on the battlefield </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>The ruler was chosen and favored by heaven, and held power as long as he was a wise and principled guardian of his people </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>Which of the following most helps to explain why the collapse of political institutions was more devastating to the Roman civilization than to Han China or Gupta India? </li></ul><ul><li>Political institutions in Rome were weaker to begin with </li></ul><ul><li>The barbarian attacks destroyed more physical property and vital public works in Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Han China and Gupta India had strong religious/ philosophical traditions to provide continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Roman emperors had more power than did Han or Gupta emperors, so their downfall eviscerated the Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans were economically more self-sufficient than the Han or Gupta, so they had no long-distance trade to cushion their fall </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>Han China and Gupta India had strong religious/ philosophical traditions to provide continuity </li></ul>