Adult learning 1_m_knowles

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  • 1. Motivation for Adult Learners
  • 2. Learning Objectives
    At the conclusion of this workshop, you will be able to:
    Explain the difference between Andragogy and Pedagogy
    Identify the characteristics of adult learners
    Determine the six factors that serve as a source of motivation for adult learners
    Discuss the three critical learning strategies for effective instructors
  • 3. Malcolm Shepherd Knowles (1913-1997)Father of Adult Learning
  • 4. Who is Malcolm Knowles?
    In 1940, Director of Adult Education at YMCA in Boston which lead to a book entitled Informal Adult Education (1950)
    In 1960, accepted a position with Boston University – teachings went from an informal environment to formal, academic environment
    Met a Visiting Professor from Yugoslav who introduced Knowles to the term “andragogy” (the art of science of how adults learn)
    In 1970, wrote a book entitled The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy versus Pedagogy.
  • 5. Pedagogy Andragogy
    Dependent on teacher
    Experience is of little worth
    Subject – centered learning
    Postponed application
    Teacher diagnoses needs, develops objectives and evaluates students
    Increasing self-directiveness
    Learners a rich source for learning
    Problem-center leaning
    Immediacy of application
    Mutual self-diagnosis, mutual negotiation and mutual measurement
  • 6. Characteristics of Adult Learners
    Adults need to know why they are learning; how will it affect them?
    Adults are autonomous and self-directed
    Adults have a lifetime of experience
    Adults use a hands-on problem-solving approach to learning
    Adults want to apply new knowledge and skills immediately
    Adults need to be shown respect
  • 7. Six Factors Serve as Sources of Motivation for Adult Learning
    Develop social relationships
    Escape/Stimulation
    Social welfare
    Personal advancement
    External expectations
    Cognitive interest
  • 8. Learning Tips for Effective Instructors
    Set a friendly, open atmosphere
    Set an appropriate level of concern
    Set an appropriate level of difficulty
  • 9. Implementing Adult Learning Principles into Distance Education
    Motivating students and eliminate anxiety by:
    Gaining student attention before the actual start date of the course
    Addressing students individually and often (i.e.: when they introduce themselves to the group)
    Focusing on the desired outcomes at the beginning of each chapter/lesson
    Assisting learners by organizing material into logical chunks of information
    Providing learning experiences that promotes short-term to long-term learning (provide activities that promote critically thinking skills)
    Offering frequent feedback and opportunities for learning reinforcement
    Incorporating guided distance learning exercises as practice before beginning to grade material
  • 10. Final Thought
    Tell me and I will forgetShow me and I will rememberInvolve me and I will understandStep back and I will act
    (Chinese proverb)
  • 11. References
    Knowles, M. S. (1968). Andragogy, not pedagogy. Adult Learning.16(10). 350-352, 386.
    Knowles, M. S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education: From pedagogy to andragogy. (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge Books.
    Zemke, R. (2002) A pocket guide to useful learning theories. Training. 39(9). 90-91.