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Learning Objectives At the conclusion of this workshop, you will be able to: Explain the difference between Andragogy and Pedagogy Identify the characteristics of adult learners Determine the six factors that serve as a source of motivation for adult learners Discuss the three critical learning strategies for effective instructors
Malcolm Shepherd Knowles (1913-1997)Father of Adult Learning
Who is Malcolm Knowles? In 1940, Director of Adult Education at YMCA in Boston which lead to a book entitled Informal Adult Education (1950) In 1960, accepted a position with Boston University – teachings went from an informal environment to formal, academic environment Met a Visiting Professor from Yugoslav who introduced Knowles to the term “andragogy” (the art of science of how adults learn) In 1970, wrote a book entitled The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy versus Pedagogy.
Pedagogy Andragogy Dependent on teacher Experience is of little worth Subject – centered learning Postponed application Teacher diagnoses needs, develops objectives and evaluates students Increasing self-directiveness Learners a rich source for learning Problem-center leaning Immediacy of application Mutual self-diagnosis, mutual negotiation and mutual measurement
Characteristics of Adult Learners Adults need to know why they are learning; how will it affect them? Adults are autonomous and self-directed Adults have a lifetime of experience Adults use a hands-on problem-solving approach to learning Adults want to apply new knowledge and skills immediately Adults need to be shown respect
Six Factors Serve as Sources of Motivation for Adult Learning Develop social relationships Escape/Stimulation Social welfare Personal advancement External expectations Cognitive interest
Learning Tips for Effective Instructors Set a friendly, open atmosphere Set an appropriate level of concern Set an appropriate level of difficulty
Implementing Adult Learning Principles into Distance Education Motivating students and eliminate anxiety by: Gaining student attention before the actual start date of the course Addressing students individually and often (i.e.: when they introduce themselves to the group) Focusing on the desired outcomes at the beginning of each chapter/lesson Assisting learners by organizing material into logical chunks of information Providing learning experiences that promotes short-term to long-term learning (provide activities that promote critically thinking skills) Offering frequent feedback and opportunities for learning reinforcement Incorporating guided distance learning exercises as practice before beginning to grade material
Final Thought Tell me and I will forgetShow me and I will rememberInvolve me and I will understandStep back and I will act (Chinese proverb)
References Knowles, M. S. (1968). Andragogy, not pedagogy. Adult Learning.16(10). 350-352, 386. Knowles, M. S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education: From pedagogy to andragogy. (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge Books. Zemke, R. (2002) A pocket guide to useful learning theories. Training. 39(9). 90-91.