Adult learning 1_m_knowles


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Adult learning 1_m_knowles

  1. 1. Motivation for Adult Learners<br />
  2. 2. Learning Objectives<br />At the conclusion of this workshop, you will be able to:<br />Explain the difference between Andragogy and Pedagogy<br />Identify the characteristics of adult learners<br />Determine the six factors that serve as a source of motivation for adult learners<br />Discuss the three critical learning strategies for effective instructors<br />
  3. 3. Malcolm Shepherd Knowles (1913-1997)Father of Adult Learning<br />
  4. 4. Who is Malcolm Knowles?<br />In 1940, Director of Adult Education at YMCA in Boston which lead to a book entitled Informal Adult Education (1950)<br />In 1960, accepted a position with Boston University – teachings went from an informal environment to formal, academic environment<br />Met a Visiting Professor from Yugoslav who introduced Knowles to the term “andragogy” (the art of science of how adults learn)<br />In 1970, wrote a book entitled The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy versus Pedagogy.<br />
  5. 5. Pedagogy Andragogy<br />Dependent on teacher<br />Experience is of little worth<br />Subject – centered learning<br />Postponed application <br />Teacher diagnoses needs, develops objectives and evaluates students<br />Increasing self-directiveness<br />Learners a rich source for learning<br />Problem-center leaning<br />Immediacy of application<br />Mutual self-diagnosis, mutual negotiation and mutual measurement<br />
  6. 6. Characteristics of Adult Learners<br />Adults need to know why they are learning; how will it affect them?<br />Adults are autonomous and self-directed<br />Adults have a lifetime of experience<br />Adults use a hands-on problem-solving approach to learning<br />Adults want to apply new knowledge and skills immediately<br />Adults need to be shown respect<br />
  7. 7. Six Factors Serve as Sources of Motivation for Adult Learning <br />Develop social relationships<br />Escape/Stimulation<br />Social welfare<br />Personal advancement<br />External expectations<br />Cognitive interest<br />
  8. 8. Learning Tips for Effective Instructors<br />Set a friendly, open atmosphere<br />Set an appropriate level of concern<br />Set an appropriate level of difficulty<br />
  9. 9. Implementing Adult Learning Principles into Distance Education<br />Motivating students and eliminate anxiety by:<br />Gaining student attention before the actual start date of the course<br />Addressing students individually and often (i.e.: when they introduce themselves to the group)<br />Focusing on the desired outcomes at the beginning of each chapter/lesson <br />Assisting learners by organizing material into logical chunks of information <br />Providing learning experiences that promotes short-term to long-term learning (provide activities that promote critically thinking skills)<br />Offering frequent feedback and opportunities for learning reinforcement <br />Incorporating guided distance learning exercises as practice before beginning to grade material <br />
  10. 10. Final Thought<br />Tell me and I will forgetShow me and I will rememberInvolve me and I will understandStep back and I will act<br />(Chinese proverb)<br />
  11. 11. References<br />Knowles, M. S. (1968). Andragogy, not pedagogy. Adult Learning.16(10). 350-352, 386.<br />Knowles, M. S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education: From pedagogy to andragogy. (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge Books.<br />Zemke, R. (2002) A pocket guide to useful learning theories. Training. 39(9). 90-91.<br />