Adult learning 1_m_knowles
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    Adult learning 1_m_knowles Adult learning 1_m_knowles Presentation Transcript

    • Motivation for Adult Learners
    • Learning Objectives
      At the conclusion of this workshop, you will be able to:
      Explain the difference between Andragogy and Pedagogy
      Identify the characteristics of adult learners
      Determine the six factors that serve as a source of motivation for adult learners
      Discuss the three critical learning strategies for effective instructors
    • Malcolm Shepherd Knowles (1913-1997)Father of Adult Learning
    • Who is Malcolm Knowles?
      In 1940, Director of Adult Education at YMCA in Boston which lead to a book entitled Informal Adult Education (1950)
      In 1960, accepted a position with Boston University – teachings went from an informal environment to formal, academic environment
      Met a Visiting Professor from Yugoslav who introduced Knowles to the term “andragogy” (the art of science of how adults learn)
      In 1970, wrote a book entitled The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy versus Pedagogy.
    • Pedagogy Andragogy
      Dependent on teacher
      Experience is of little worth
      Subject – centered learning
      Postponed application
      Teacher diagnoses needs, develops objectives and evaluates students
      Increasing self-directiveness
      Learners a rich source for learning
      Problem-center leaning
      Immediacy of application
      Mutual self-diagnosis, mutual negotiation and mutual measurement
    • Characteristics of Adult Learners
      Adults need to know why they are learning; how will it affect them?
      Adults are autonomous and self-directed
      Adults have a lifetime of experience
      Adults use a hands-on problem-solving approach to learning
      Adults want to apply new knowledge and skills immediately
      Adults need to be shown respect
    • Six Factors Serve as Sources of Motivation for Adult Learning
      Develop social relationships
      Escape/Stimulation
      Social welfare
      Personal advancement
      External expectations
      Cognitive interest
    • Learning Tips for Effective Instructors
      Set a friendly, open atmosphere
      Set an appropriate level of concern
      Set an appropriate level of difficulty
    • Implementing Adult Learning Principles into Distance Education
      Motivating students and eliminate anxiety by:
      Gaining student attention before the actual start date of the course
      Addressing students individually and often (i.e.: when they introduce themselves to the group)
      Focusing on the desired outcomes at the beginning of each chapter/lesson
      Assisting learners by organizing material into logical chunks of information
      Providing learning experiences that promotes short-term to long-term learning (provide activities that promote critically thinking skills)
      Offering frequent feedback and opportunities for learning reinforcement
      Incorporating guided distance learning exercises as practice before beginning to grade material
    • Final Thought
      Tell me and I will forgetShow me and I will rememberInvolve me and I will understandStep back and I will act
      (Chinese proverb)
    • References
      Knowles, M. S. (1968). Andragogy, not pedagogy. Adult Learning.16(10). 350-352, 386.
      Knowles, M. S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education: From pedagogy to andragogy. (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge Books.
      Zemke, R. (2002) A pocket guide to useful learning theories. Training. 39(9). 90-91.