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This document remains the intellectual property of Sri Kota
Specialist Medical Centre and may not be reproduced or used in...
• Apply the adult learning principle in dealing with adult
learner
• Teaching and learning in preceptorship program
At the...
Preceptorship
Preceptors must willing to learn about
the new employees with whom they
work and be responsive to individual...
Malcolm Knowles
Most adult learning theories have been
based on the work of Malcolm Knowles,
who theorized that adult lear...
Principle #1. “Learning is a normal
adult activity.”
Adults learn throughout their lives. Adult
learning takes place not b...
Principle # 2.
“Adults with a positive self-concept and high
self-esteem are more responsive to learning”
Adults see thems...
Principle #3.
“Adults learn best when they value the role of
adult learner and posses skills for managing
their own learni...
Principle #4.
“Immediate descriptive feedback is essential if
adult learners are to modify their behavior.”
As adult learn...
Principle #5. “Success reinforces changes
already made and provides a motive for
further learning.”
For the adult learner,...
Principle #6. “Adults tend to begin to any
learning programs with some anxiety and
further stress can interfere with learn...
What can preceptor offer to the preceptee ?
1.Reducing threatening situations in the
learning environment.
2.Creating an e...
POINT TO PONDER
By applying these principles of adult
learning, preceptor programs can be
responsive to the needs of adult...
Teaching
You cannot give what
YOU DO NOT HAVE
Teaching as a process
Effective teaching is WHEN YOU CAN bring OUT the intended
learning outcome:
• An organization THAT m...
Teacher
Person who teaches, controls learning,
dispensing of knowledge, with an
ultimate authority and a director of
learn...
Teaching
• Based on progressive and humanist education, teaching
is perceived as STIMULATING, DIRECTING,
GUIDING the learn...
Teaching Process
IMPLEMENT
PLAN EVALUATE
Feedbacks and Reflection
Planning Phase includes decision like:
• The needs of the learner
• The achievable goals & objectives to meet the needs
• ...
Considerations in planning
• Learner ABILITY TO LEARN
• Availability of materials
• Time requirement of particular activit...
Implementation phase
• Based on the objective, implementation means to
put into action the different activities in order t...
Evaluation phase
• A match of the objectives with the learning outcome
will be made
• Answer the question either the plans...
• A continuous process of feedback and reflection is
made in this three phases of teaching
• Feedback is the reflection of...
Basic assumptions can be made based
on the diagram:
• That teaching is goal oriented with the change of
behavior as the ul...
Good teaching is .......
• One that is well planned & which activities are
interrelated to each other
• One that provide l...
Good teaching is .......
• Utilizes prior learning and it’s application to the new
situation
• Governed by democratic prin...
Learning as a process of learning
To teach, is to make
someone to learn...
Learning
• Defined as a change in an individual’s behaviour
caused by experiences or self activity
• Implies that learning...
Two principal types of learning process
•Behavioural learning theories
•Cognitive learning theories
Behaviour Learning Theory
• Emphasizes observable behaviour such as new skills,
knowledge, or attitudes which can be demon...
Cognitive Learning Theory
• Concerned with human learning in which
unobservable mental processes are used to learn and
rem...
Three model of teaching anchored on
cognitive learning theory
•Discovery learning of Jerome Bruner
•Reception learning of ...
Discovery learning
• States that the individual learns from his own
discovery of the environment
• Learners are inherently...
Reception Learning
• Though learners are inherently curious, they may
not be able to know what is important or relevant
an...
Events of learning (eight internal events)
1. Motivation phase – the learner must be motivated to
learn by expectation tha...
Events of .......
5. Recall phase – recall previously learned
information; to learn to gain access to that
what has been l...
Learning based on the theory of learning
• Does not take place in an empty vessel
• A social process where interaction wit...
Learning based....
• Takes place when all the senses are utilized
• Will be enhanced when the learned is stimulated,
direc...
Teaching and Learning Go together
• One cannot succeed with the support or success of the
other
• Teaching style of the te...
Teaching & Learning......
Teaching is the cause
And
Learning is the effect
Learning in Teaching
And
Teaching for Learning
Ways of Teaching & Learning
• Different teaching method & strategies can be clustered
according to the number of students ...
Ways of .......
• Traditional teaching method : inductive method,
deductive method, type study method, project
method, lab...
Ways of learning:
• Trial and error- related to stimulus response theory of
learning
• Conditioning – classical conditioni...
Teaching & Learning in the clinical
setting
• Crucial issue – how the learner should learn
how to learn
• Content need to ...
• Teaching & Learning give life to the clinical setting
performance
• Value placed in teaching will reap the same value in...
Thank you
for Listening
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Principles of adult learning ,principles of teaching and learning

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Teaching in clinical setting needs a comprehensive skill and be able to switch according to the needs of your audience. Application of various teaching and learning principles help the preceptor to delivered the learning activities successfully.

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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/wk6sdh2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/wk6sdh2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/wk6sdh2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/wk6sdh2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/wk6sdh2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/wk6sdh2 } ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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Principles of adult learning ,principles of teaching and learning

  1. 1. This document remains the intellectual property of Sri Kota Specialist Medical Centre and may not be reproduced or used in any form whatsoever without the permission of its custodian.
  2. 2. • Apply the adult learning principle in dealing with adult learner • Teaching and learning in preceptorship program At the end of this short presentation, participants shall be able to:
  3. 3. Preceptorship Preceptors must willing to learn about the new employees with whom they work and be responsive to individual needs. Study have shows that child and adult learnt differently
  4. 4. Malcolm Knowles Most adult learning theories have been based on the work of Malcolm Knowles, who theorized that adult learners have distinct and unique characteristics. Andragogy – which describes the science of helping adults learn. Pedagogy – teacher centered method.
  5. 5. Principle #1. “Learning is a normal adult activity.” Adults learn throughout their lives. Adult learning takes place not by a teacher initiating and motivating the learning process, but rather, by the teacher removing or reducing obstacles to learning, and enhancing the process after it has begun.
  6. 6. Principle # 2. “Adults with a positive self-concept and high self-esteem are more responsive to learning” Adults see themselves as achievers, and therefore want to be treated with respect.
  7. 7. Principle #3. “Adults learn best when they value the role of adult learner and posses skills for managing their own learning.” Adult learning is an active, self-directed process. After being reoriented to learning, adults can take responsibility for their own learning as they have done with other facets of their lives.
  8. 8. Principle #4. “Immediate descriptive feedback is essential if adult learners are to modify their behavior.” As adult learners practice new skills, they need feedback about how they are progressing toward their objectives. The longer the interval between performance and feedback, the less likely it is that feedback will have a positive affect on learning.
  9. 9. Principle #5. “Success reinforces changes already made and provides a motive for further learning.” For the adult learner, meeting established objectives reinforces the newly acquired skill and motivates them to learn more. The earlier satisfaction and success come in the learning program, the more likely it is that further learning will take place.
  10. 10. Principle #6. “Adults tend to begin to any learning programs with some anxiety and further stress can interfere with learning.” Excessive anxiety interferes with adult learning. Stress comes from the fact that they are beginning in a new learning program, but it also comes from other aspect of life obligations For instance ,if the preceptor’s actions arouse anxiety to the learner, he or she will experience further anxiety, and the ability to learn will be diminishes.
  11. 11. What can preceptor offer to the preceptee ? 1.Reducing threatening situations in the learning environment. 2.Creating an environment of acceptance and support for learning. 3.Providing time for learning and opportunities to practice new behaviors, and 4. Providing opportunities to talk through anxieties related to learning as they occur.
  12. 12. POINT TO PONDER By applying these principles of adult learning, preceptor programs can be responsive to the needs of adult learners, ensuring that they will become oriented to the clinical setting quickly, effectively, and in a way that is satisfying to them and also to their preceptors
  13. 13. Teaching You cannot give what YOU DO NOT HAVE
  14. 14. Teaching as a process Effective teaching is WHEN YOU CAN bring OUT the intended learning outcome: • An organization THAT meaningful FOR learning • It is CREATING a SITUATION or SELECTING LIFE- LIKE situation to enhance learning • To the traditionalist, it is IMPARTING KNOWLEDGE & SKILLS required to master a subject matter. • Process of DISPENSING knowledge to an empty vessel ( mind of learner) • Its SHOWING, TELLING, giving INSTRUCTION, making someone UNDERSTAND in order to learn
  15. 15. Teacher Person who teaches, controls learning, dispensing of knowledge, with an ultimate authority and a director of learning
  16. 16. Teaching • Based on progressive and humanist education, teaching is perceived as STIMULATING, DIRECTING, GUIDING the learner and evaluating the learning outcomes of teaching. • Teacher’s role ENCOURAGE the learner TO TAKE the responsibility to learn. • A process that ENABLES the learner to learn on his own • Teacher is the DECISION MAKER in teaching process
  17. 17. Teaching Process IMPLEMENT PLAN EVALUATE Feedbacks and Reflection
  18. 18. Planning Phase includes decision like: • The needs of the learner • The achievable goals & objectives to meet the needs • Selection of the content to be taught • Motivation to carry out the goal, • Strategies most fit to carry out the goals • Evaluation process to measure learning outcome
  19. 19. Considerations in planning • Learner ABILITY TO LEARN • Availability of materials • Time requirement of particular activity • Strategy need to achieve the objective • Teacher KNOWLEDGE & SKILLS
  20. 20. Implementation phase • Based on the objective, implementation means to put into action the different activities in order to achieve the objectives through the subject matter • Interaction of the teacher and learner is important TO accomplish the plan • Use of different teaching style and strategy are included in this phase
  21. 21. Evaluation phase • A match of the objectives with the learning outcome will be made • Answer the question either the plans & the implementation have been successfully achieved
  22. 22. • A continuous process of feedback and reflection is made in this three phases of teaching • Feedback is the reflection of the feedback • Reflection is the process embedded in teaching where the teacher inquires into his action and provides deep and critical thinking
  23. 23. Basic assumptions can be made based on the diagram: • That teaching is goal oriented with the change of behavior as the ultimate end • That teachers are the ones who shape actively their own action • That teaching is a rational and a reflective process • That teachers by their actions can influence learners to change their own thinking or desired behavior, thus teaching is a way of changing behavior, through the intervention of the teacher
  24. 24. Good teaching is ....... • One that is well planned & which activities are interrelated to each other • One that provide learning experiences or situation that will ensure understanding, application of knowledge and use of critical thinking • Based on the theory of learning • One where the learner is stimulated to think and giving reasoning to each action taken
  25. 25. Good teaching is ....... • Utilizes prior learning and it’s application to the new situation • Governed by democratic principles ( win-win) • Embed a sound evaluation process
  26. 26. Learning as a process of learning To teach, is to make someone to learn...
  27. 27. Learning • Defined as a change in an individual’s behaviour caused by experiences or self activity • Implies that learning can only happen through the individuals activity or his own doing • Can be intentional or unintentional
  28. 28. Two principal types of learning process •Behavioural learning theories •Cognitive learning theories
  29. 29. Behaviour Learning Theory • Emphasizes observable behaviour such as new skills, knowledge, or attitudes which can be demonstrated • Observable and measurable • If the individual has changed behaviour, he has learned
  30. 30. Cognitive Learning Theory • Concerned with human learning in which unobservable mental processes are used to learn and remember new information or acquired skill • Related to the concept of meaningful learning through cognitive models
  31. 31. Three model of teaching anchored on cognitive learning theory •Discovery learning of Jerome Bruner •Reception learning of David Ausubel •Events of Learning of Robert Gagne
  32. 32. Discovery learning • States that the individual learns from his own discovery of the environment • Learners are inherently curious, thus they can be self motivated until they find answers to the problem • Gave rise to the emerging theory of constructivism and self-learning • Learning is flexible, exploratory, and independent
  33. 33. Reception Learning • Though learners are inherently curious, they may not be able to know what is important or relevant and they need external motivation in order to learn • Both also emphasize that prior learning is important in order to learn new things and because knowledge continuously changes once it is in the learner’s mind
  34. 34. Events of learning (eight internal events) 1. Motivation phase – the learner must be motivated to learn by expectation that learning will be rewarding 2. Apprehending phase – learner stands or pay attention if learning has to take place 3. Acquisition phase – while learner is paying attention, the stage is set and the information presented 4. Retention phase – newly acquired information must be transferred from short tem to long term memory
  35. 35. Events of ....... 5. Recall phase – recall previously learned information; to learn to gain access to that what has been learned is a critical phase in learning 6. Generalization phase – transfer of information to new situations allows application of the learned information in the context in what it was learned 7. Feedback phase – learner must receive feedback on their performance
  36. 36. Learning based on the theory of learning • Does not take place in an empty vessel • A social process where interaction with other learners and the teachers are needed • Result of individual experiences and self activity • Both observable and measurable
  37. 37. Learning based.... • Takes place when all the senses are utilized • Will be enhanced when the learned is stimulated, directed, guided and feedback is immediately given • Each learner has its own learning style
  38. 38. Teaching and Learning Go together • One cannot succeed with the support or success of the other • Teaching style of the teacher should be with the learner’s learning styles. • Learner is the centre of teaching • Knowledge of the learner and his learning style should be considered • Learners become complex individuals capable of learning on their own, the repertoire of teaching should also increase
  39. 39. Teaching & Learning...... Teaching is the cause And Learning is the effect
  40. 40. Learning in Teaching And Teaching for Learning
  41. 41. Ways of Teaching & Learning • Different teaching method & strategies can be clustered according to the number of students being taught • For larger group teaching, methods like lecture, expository, panel discussion, seminar, forum, demonstration or combination of lecture-demo are appropriate • For smaller group, role playing, buzz session, workshop, process approach, discovery learning, cooperative learning • For individualized teaching, modular instruction, e-teaching, programmed instruction
  42. 42. Ways of ....... • Traditional teaching method : inductive method, deductive method, type study method, project method, laboratory method, Q&A or Socratic method & lecture method • Improved teaching methods: integrative technique, discovery approach, process approach, conceptual approach, mastery learning, programmed instruction, e-learning, simulation, case-based teaching, conceptual teaching, cooperative teaching
  43. 43. Ways of learning: • Trial and error- related to stimulus response theory of learning • Conditioning – classical conditioning theory of Pavlov • Insight- higher level of intelligence is being utilized • Observation & imitation through modelling
  44. 44. Teaching & Learning in the clinical setting • Crucial issue – how the learner should learn how to learn • Content need to be streamline to the needs of the staff and time constrain as well work overloaded
  45. 45. • Teaching & Learning give life to the clinical setting performance • Value placed in teaching will reap the same value in learning • A good content can be judged by the kind of teaching and the quality of learning derived from it
  46. 46. Thank you for Listening

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