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7 4martin16+notes


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Students benefit from instruction that reflects the principles of adult learning, as identified by Malcolm Knowles (1968). Participants developed an understanding of the principles by joining in an active, student-centered learning experience that models the tenets of adult learning theory. This included understanding the role of self-efficacy and its influence on student learning, which must be addressed in designing instruction for adults. By examining common behaviors exhibited by students and connecting those behaviors to self-efficacy and faculty teaching approaches, participants gained insight into the adult learner.

Through personal reflection, group collaboration, paired peer review and class discussion, faculty identified common characteristics of the adult learner and began to develop strategies to address their instructional needs. The result is an increased understanding of andragogy as a distinct method that can inform instruction in the higher education classroom.

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7 4martin16+notes

  1. 1. THE ADULT LEARNER- FROM BORED TO ON BOARD Amy Chase Martin, Director of Faculty Development and Instructional Media Howard Community College AFACCT ’16 Conference, College of Southern Maryland January 8, 2016 Session 7.4 1:40 – 2:40 pm Download complete presentation with notes
  2. 2. CHALLENGES Identify what YOU want to learn today Discover common traits/needs of adult learners  How do we respond to these traits in instruction? Examine the role of self-efficacy in learning  How to encourage positive self-efficacy? Identify teacher-centered vs student centered instruction  How to convert a lesson from one model to another?
  4. 4. CHALLENGE 1 Describe an adult learner. Name one instructional strategy you currently use with adult learners. Purpose: Reflect on current knowledge and practice
  5. 5. PEDAGOGY VS ANDRAGOGY  Children explore their world – frequently at the direction and guidance of the teacher  Children are often viewed as empty vessels who are filled with knowledge through formal education  Children may or may not have prior knowledge of subjects introduced in school  Children benefit from highly structured and scaffolded instruction  Malcolm Knowles – Father of Andragogy believed adults learned differently
  6. 6. ANDRAGOGY HAS 6 PRINCIPLES For each group, choose an envelope and draw a picture or saying on the whiteboard that represents that principle. CHALLENGE 1 Purpose: Learn research- supported information
  7. 7. PLAN TO TEACH AN ADULT! Debra Gabe Marco Pair up and refer to the handout provided for student description and sample objectives. CHALLENGE 1 Purpose: Apply learned material in context
  8. 8. CONNECTING THE DOTS Higher education students are most often adult learners. Adult learners enter the classroom with life experiences, good and bad. Adult learners desire real-world application of their new knowledge. Adult learners want to have some autonomy and options in their learning. Adults are often self-directed learners but they will still need some support. Sources: Knowles, M. S., Holton III, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (2014). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. Routledge. Merriam, S. B., & Bierema, L. L. (2013). Adult learning: Linking theory and practice. John Wiley & Sons.
  9. 9. CHALLENGE 2 Self-efficacy influences learning. On the next slide, identify some student behaviors you have experienced in your classroom. Purpose: Examine research- based information related to student learning
  10. 10. ADULT STUDENT ADD ATTENTION DIS-INTERESTED DISORDER (AKA GUESS WHO) Rejecting Hopeless Rejecting Fragile Evading Defiant Evading Motivated Don’t See Value See Value Don’t See Value See Value ENVIRONMENT NOT SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENT SUPPORTIVE HighLow
  11. 11. ROLE OF SELF-EFFICACY Whether you think you can or you can’t you’re probably right. –Henry Ford It is my terrible secret………………………… ……
  12. 12. INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES Teacher-centered Teacher as provider of all knowledge Content is delivered not discovered Content Is or isn’t – not nuanced Teacher’s physical presence is front and center Student-centered Teacher serves as a guide Content provided as ill-structured problems Expectation for Performance is at edge of ZPD Peer-to-peer interaction increased CHALLENGE 3 Purpose: Compare and contrast instructional approaches for classroom application
  14. 14. STUDENT-CENTERED INSTRUCTION …the one who does the work, does the learning (Doyle, 2011, p. 1) Doyle, T. (2011). Learner-centered teaching: Putting the research on learning into practice. Sterling, VA: Stylus How can you recognize a student centered lesson?
  15. 15. CHALLENGE 3 Consider an existing lesson you teach through the lens of what you have learned about adult learners Draft a brief description of one element of the lesson you could change to better reflect characteristics of adult learners Purpose: Apply learned material in context
  16. 16. REVIEW OF KEY PRINCIPLES/STRATEGIES Lead the student toward inquiry – resist just telling them facts aka Talk Less Offer choice when possible Answer “What’s In It For Me?” Make assignments transparent by identifying the learning task, purpose and the criteria of evaluation. Design a learning program that begins with significant structure but gradually is more student-directed Encourage learners to identify aspects of the content that most interest them  Interest survey  Student introductions Set projects or tasks for the student that reflect their interests Find motivators that provide incentive to learn content Provide real-world examples of content Provide ample opportunities for success
  17. 17. Principles of Adult Learners Self Efficacy Teacher-centered vs student-centered instruction YourTurn
  18. 18. LEARN MORE! Free resources to support learning about and teaching the adult learner How Learning Works: 7 Research-based Principles for Smart Teaching - Ambrose, Bridges, Lovett (2010) The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species - Malcolm Knowles (1973) Adult Learning in Under 3 Minutes @MERLOTorg
  19. 19. Thank you! Amy Chase Martin Director, Faculty Development and Instructional Media Howard Community College