Introduction to EDP by Mostafa Ewees


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Introduction to EDP by Mostafa Ewees

  1. 1. WEEK 1-2 BY MOSTAFA EWEES Introduction to EDP
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Educational psychology and its role </li></ul><ul><li>A brief history of educational psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Educational psychology’s methods </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>By the time you have finished this section,you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Tell what EDP is? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the role of EDP. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the history of EDP. </li></ul><ul><li>Make acquainted with the methods of EDP. </li></ul>
  4. 4. EDP and its purpose <ul><li>What is EDP? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational psychology is a branch of psychology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It deals with the principles of learning and teaching used in the educational environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a theoretical and applicative subject. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Educational Psychology is a course designed to introduce psychological principles as they apply to teaching and learning. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Purpose of EDP <ul><li>Its major purpose is to provide information to help teachers make wiser decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Make the students become effective learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Supply suggestions to the educational administrators. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Expert and novice teacher <ul><li>Characteristics of expert teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing the academic subjects they teach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing the goals and purpose of teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having enough general teaching strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting and supplying appropriate materials for their subject and grade level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possessing abundant subject-specific knowledge for teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informative of characteristics and cultural backgrounds of learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good at arranging the settings in which students learn </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Characteristics of novice teachers <ul><li>Having limited /ill-organized knowledge for understanding problems in teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Spending more times in concrete details </li></ul><ul><li>Examining the problem surfacely </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting the lecture in preseted procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Know little about how to arrest students’ attention </li></ul>
  8. 8. Expert teacher He did this tree time This child is seeking attention Are there changes at home?Is the work too easy? It doesn’t matter that he’s one of the brighter students. If I can get the others not to laugh when he does this…if I move him closer to my desk… First,I’ll talk to the class when he’s not here;next …. I don’t need apologies I just want the interruptions to stop Tomorrow,when Robbie is in art
  9. 9. Novice teacher I’ll tell Robbie the interruptions have to stop.
  10. 10. Pause and think <ul><li>In terms of the characteristics of expert and novice teachers, does one of your current teachers look like a beginner? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes his/her instruction less effective? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Self-regulated Learner <ul><li>Ample knowledge about themselves,the subject, the task, strategies for learning, and the contexts in which they will apply their learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Being Motivated to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong volition/ will power/ self discipline </li></ul>
  12. 12. Unskillful learner <ul><li>Poor knowledge about learning </li></ul><ul><li>Low academic self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely regards other as useful learning resource </li></ul><ul><li>Unmotivated </li></ul><ul><li>Frailty </li></ul>
  13. 13. Discussion <ul><li>Is the following educational goals attainable? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doings are for all the children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All doings are for children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doings are for all of children. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is it just common sense? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Read text p.12-13 </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Pause and reflection <ul><li>Are you self-regulated learners? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If yes, which characteristics benefit you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If not,what consequence has it brought about? Would it result in future trouble? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. History of educational psychology <ul><li>EDWARD THORNDIKE 1874-1949 </li></ul><ul><li>Born in Williamsburg in 1874. He studied at Wesleyan University and Harvard, received his Ph.D. in 1898 from Columbia. and became professor at Teachers College, Columbia (1904-40) </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Psychology,3 vols (1903,1913-14) indicates EDP as a independent subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Connectionism: the original S-R framework of behavioral psychology </li></ul>
  16. 16. History of educational psychology (continued) <ul><li>1913,“ Psychology as the behaviorist view it ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Watson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting the stage for behaviorism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1928, “ Intelligence in apes ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wolfgang Kohler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1930,“Mind and society: the development of higher psychological process” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lev Vygotsky </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociocultural-historical school </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. History of educational psychology (continued) <ul><li>1932,“ Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edward Tolman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive maps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1935, “The psychology of learning” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edwin Guthrie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of contiguity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1938, “The behavior of organism:an experimental analysis” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burrhus Skinner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. History of educational psychology (continued) <ul><li>1943, “principles of behavior” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clark Hull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive-reduction theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1953, “science and human behavior” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burrhus Skinner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmed instruction </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. History of educational psychology (continued) <ul><li>1956, Broadbent’s model of human memory </li></ul><ul><li>1957,Soviet Union launches Sputnik </li></ul><ul><li>1960, Bruner calls for a theory of instruction </li></ul><ul><li>1960-1963,Piagetian concepts introduced to Amercian education </li></ul><ul><li>1965,Gagne’s conditions of learning </li></ul><ul><li>1967, Publication of Neisser’s cognitive psychology </li></ul>
  20. 20. History of educational psychology (continued) <ul><li>1969, The term instructional psychology is coined </li></ul><ul><li>1971, Bandura’s social learning theory introduced </li></ul><ul><li>1972, Weiner introduces attribution theory </li></ul><ul><li>1970-1975,Various models of human memory proposed </li></ul>
  21. 21. History of educational psychology (continued) <ul><li>1980s, Dominance of research on cognitive processes </li></ul><ul><li>1985, Cognitive psychology emphasizes strategy instruction and metecognition </li></ul><ul><li>1990-1994, Various constructivism curricula are implemented </li></ul><ul><li>1995, interest in neuroscience emerges </li></ul>
  22. 22. Educational psychology in China <ul><li>1924, Liao shicheng ( 廖世承 ) “Educational Psychology” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vice president of ECNU in 1951, president of Shanghai Normal College. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1963, Pan Shu ( 潘菽 ) “Educational Psychology” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cousin of Pan Hannian, head of Psychological graduate school of Chinese Academy of Sciencer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1983, Shao Ruizhen( 邵瑞珍 ) “Educational Psychology” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1988,1990,1996,1997,2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>邵瑞珍、皮连生、吴庆麟 troika of EDP in China </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Educational psychology in China <ul><li>1993,Li Boshu( 李伯黍)“ Educational Psychology” </li></ul><ul><li>2000, Wu Qinglin “Cognitive Psychology of Instruction” </li></ul><ul><li>2003,Pang Weiguo “Self-regulated learning: Principles and educational applications” </li></ul><ul><li>A landmark book ??????? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Educational psychology’s methods <ul><li>Descriptive research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It describes situations; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It enables researchers to draw conclusions about the current state of affairs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What percentage of high school students think abstractly?” </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Descriptive Studies <ul><li>Ethnography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Borrowed from anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studying the naturally occurring events in the life of a group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trying to understand the meaning of these events to the people involved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participant observation </li></ul><ul><li>Case study </li></ul>
  26. 26. Educational psychology’s methods(continued) <ul><li>Correlational research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It explores relationships among variables; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It enables researchers to predict one variable based on their knowledge of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Are older students more capable of abstract thought than younger students? ” </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Educational psychology’s methods (continued) <ul><li>Experimental research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It involves the manipulation of one variable to determine its possible effect on another variable; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It enables researchers to draw conclusions about cause-effect relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Can abstract thinking skills be improved through specially designed educational programs? ” </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Pause and design <ul><li>If you want to conduct a study on the relationship between academic learning time and achievement, which research methods would you prefer? How do you design the program? </li></ul>
  29. 29. The end wish you a good weekend!