Malcolm Knowles

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Malcolm Knowles

  1. 1. Malcolm Knowles From Pedagogy to Andragogy Tyler Senn ETEC 5303
  2. 2. About Me I was born April 24, 1913 in Livingston, Montana and died November 27, 1997 at the age of 84. I received my Bachelor of Arts from Harvard in 1934, my M.A. from the University of Chicago in 1949 and my Ph.D. in 1960. While working towards these degrees I was married, served in the Navy, and had two children. I am best known for my work in adult education and popularizing the concept of Andragogy and Learning Contracts.
  3. 3. Andragogy The model of andragogy is based on 5 assumptions: 1. Learners move from being dependent personalities toward being self directed. 2. Adults come to an educational activity with both a greater volume and a different quality of experience from youths. 3. The timing of learning activities is related to developmental tasks 4. Adult learning is problem centered rather than subject centered. 5. Adults are internally rather than externally motivated to learn.
  4. 4. Andragogy • This chart shows the Process Elements of Andragogy http://web.utk.edu/~start6/knowles/process_elements.htm • This video shows an overview of the Assumptions of Andragogy as wells as a list of things for educators. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U4iMFu4CnLQ
  5. 5. Learning Contracts Learning contracts specify: 1. The knowledge, skills, attitudes and values to be acquired by the learner. 2. How these objectives are to be accomplished 3. The target date for their accomplishment 4. What evidence will be presented to demonstrate that the objectives have been accomplished. 5. How this evidence will be judged or validated.
  6. 6. 8 Steps to Developing a Learning Contract 1. Diagnose your learning needs: A learning need is the gap between where you are now and where you want to be in regards to a particular set of competencies. 2. Specify your learning objectives: Be sure that your objectives describe what you will learn, not what you do to learn them. 3. Specify learning resources and strategies: When you have finished listing your objectives, move over to the second column of the contract, 'Learning Resources and Strategies,' and describe how you propose to go about accomplishing each objective. Identify the resources (material and human) you plan to use in your field experience and the strategies (techniques, tools) you will employ in making use of them. 4. Specify evidence of accomplishment: After completing the second column, move over to the forth column, 'Evidence,' and describe what evidence you will collect to indicate the degree to which you have achieved each objective. http://web.utk.edu/~start6/knowles/malcolm_knowles.html
  7. 7. 8 Steps to Developing a Learning Contract 5. Specify how the evidence will be validated: After you have specified what evidence you will gather for each objective in column four, move over to column five, "Verification." For each objective, first specify what criteria will vary according to the type of objective... indicate the means you propose to use to have the evidence judged according to these criteria. 6. Review your contract with consultants: After you have completed the first draft of your contract, you will find it useful to review it with two or three friends, supervisors, or other expert resource people to get their reactions and suggestions. 7. Carry out the contract: Simply carry out the contract... as you work on it you may find that your notions about what you want to learn and how you want to learn it may change... so don't hesitate to revise your contract… 8. Evaluation of your learning: When you have completed your contract, you will want to get some assurance that you have in fact learned what you set out to learn. Perhaps the simplest way to do this is to ask http://web.utk.edu/~start6/knowles/malcolm_knowles.html the consultants you used in Step 6 to examine your evidence and validation data and give you their judgment about their adequacy."
  8. 8. Past In the past adult education fell by the wayside. When taught it was based the same as would be in a youth education class. The focal point of education was the youth. What little education set aside for adults was remedial and poorly constructed. The transition to andragogy will be the best benefit for adult education.
  9. 9. Present Making known the concept of andragogy and learning contracts, it is now more widely understood the proper way to educate self motivated and self directed individuals. Individuals learning as well as teachers now understand that this concept will help to be more successful in achieving their education oriented goals. This concept aligned with the technology of today will only further the self direction learning process.
  10. 10. Future Future technology will only increase self motivated learning. Distance learning and online courses are only the tip of the iceberg for what is in store in the education field. Although Brookfield, Pratt, and Merriam all have critiqued the concept of andragogy I still proclaim the importance in adult education. “Adult education faces a task of immense proportions in the immediate years ahead…the task of helping millions of grown-up people all over the world transform themselves into mature adults. By perfecting its science now, it will be equal to the task.”– Malcolm Knowles
  11. 11. References http://web.utk.edu/~start6/knowles/malcolm_knowles.html http://infed.org/mobi/malcolm-knowles-informal-adult-education-self-directionand-andragogy/ http://www.qotfc.edu.au/resource/?page=65375 http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/andragogy.html http://deoracle.org/online-pedagogy/teaching-strategies/an-overview-ofmalcolm-knowles'-concept-of-andragogy.html

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