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Instructional design


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The presentation on Instructional designs is vital for executing teaching learning process effectively.

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Instructional design

  2. 2. What is the difference between Design and Model?? Design A creative pattern or a rational, logical, sequential process intended to solve problems. Models A model is a mental picture that helps us understand something we cannot see or experience directly.
  3. 3. Instructional Design….??? 1 a set of events that facilitate learning 2 a creative pattern or a rational, logical, sequential process intended to solve problems Instructional Design Clarifying the terms
  4. 4. HISTORY: Instructional Design • During World War II, a considerable amount of training materials for the military were developed based on the principles of instruction, learning, and human behavior. • Tests for assessing a learner’s abilities were used to screen candidates in the army. • After the success of military training, psychologists began to view training as a system, and developed various analysis, design, and evaluation procedures. • In other words, the birth of instructional design is strongly related on one hand to the emergence of empirical research in psychology and education and on the other to specific needs of the system.
  5. 5. TERMINOLOGIES & DEFINITIONS • Instruction: “the deliberate arrangement of learning conditions to promote the attainment of some intended goal”. (Driscoll, 1994) • Instructional: a set of events that facilitate learning. • Design: A creative pattern or a rational, logical, sequential process intended to solve problems. • Model: A model is a mental picture that helps us understand something we cannot see or experience directly. (Dorin, Demmin & Gabel, 1990)
  6. 6. TERMINOLOGIES & DEFINITIONS • Instruction Design is defined as “a systematic process that is employed to develop education and training program in a consistent and reliable fashion.” (Reiser &Dempsey, 2007) • Instructional Design is the systematic process of translating general principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials and activities. • Instructional design model: typically specified method, that if followed will facilitate the transfer of knowledge, skills and attitude to the recipient or acquirer of the instruction.
  7. 7. PURPOSE OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN • It helps the teacher to develop her capacity to teach more students and create conductive environment for them. • It helps curriculum makers to plan learning center and curriculum which provides a variety of educational experiences to students. • It helps to make materials and create more interesting and effective instructional material and learning sources. • It stimulates to develop the new educational forms and educational opportunities which will replace the schools of today.
  8. 8. BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS Advantages: • Supports effective, efficient and appealing instruction • Facilitates congruence among objective, activities, and assessment • Provides a systematic framework for dealing with learning problems • Learning effectiveness Disadvantages: • Instructional design does not have limits of applicability, it is not the solution to all the ills and problems of education and training, nor is it the only method for creating education • Time consuming in a way that it takes times to learn how to follow the ID procedures and time to implement them when the training being created. • A good ID requires a number of resources.
  9. 9. THEORITICAL FOUNDATIONS • Firstly, instructional design theory is founded in learning theory, pedagogical theory and instructional theory and draws from many other fundamental disciplines such as motivation research. All these disciplines have their word to say about pedagogic strategy. • Second, it's also a craft, i.e. an engineering discipline who's methods draw a lot from software engineering
  10. 10. CONTD… • Third, modern sophisticated instructional designs make use of educational technologies. Some authors even argue, that some of the more interesting designs can't be done without technology. Instructional design and educational technology depend on each other. • Fourth, the planning of an a learning environment in the sense of Instructional Design should be evidence orientated. This means, that decisions for methods, design and motivation are accredited through empirical results. This can be reached through design patterns, edit formats which have been approved to solve a problem. (Niegemann 2013)
  12. 12. •ADDIE Model •ARCS Model •ASSURE Model
  13. 13. ADDIE MODEL
  14. 14. ADDIE Model • ADDIE instructional design model is possibly the best-known Instructional Design Model. • The ADDIE model refers to : • Analyze • Design • Develop • Implement and • Evaluate • It provides a step-by-step process that helps instructional designers plan and create training programs with a framework in order to make sure that their instructional products are effective and that their processes are as efficient as they can possibly be.
  15. 15. Contd.. Analyze: • Who is the audience and what are their characteristics? • Did we identify the new behavioral outcome? • What types of learning constraints exist? • What are the delivery options? Design: • Documentation of the instructional, visual and technical design strategy • Apply instructional strategies according to the intended behavioral outcomes by domain(cognitive, affective, psychomotor). • Apply visual design (graphic design) Develop: • List activities that will help the students learn the task. • Select the delivery method such as tapes, handouts, etc. • Review existing material. • Develop the instructional courseware. • Validate the instruction to ensure it accomplishes all goals and objectives.
  16. 16. Contd.. Implement: • During the implementation phase, a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners is developed. • The facilitators’ training should cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery ,and testing procedures. Evaluation: • Review and evaluate each phase (analyze, design, develop, implement) to ensure it is accomplishing what it is supposed to. • Perform external evaluations, e.g. observe that the learner on the job can actually perform the tasks that were trained. • Revise training system to make it better.
  17. 17. ARCS MODEL
  18. 18. ARCS Model • ARCS model is an instructional design approach that focuses on the motivational aspects of learning environment. • The model was created by John Keller in the 80s. It is also known as John Keller’s ARCS Model of Motivational Design ARCS Model has four steps in the instructional design process. • A-Attention • R- Relevance • C-Confidence • S- Satisfaction
  19. 19. ARCS Model ATTENTION Attention can be gained in two ways: • Perceptual arousal- uses surprise or uncertainly to gain interest. Uses novel, surprising, incongruous, and uncertain events. • Inquiry arousal- stimulates curiosity by posing challenging questions or problems to be solved. Methods for grabbing the learners’ attention include: • Specific examples- Use a visual stimuli, story or biography • Active participation or Hands-on- involve the learners with role playing, games, lab work, or other simulations that allow them to get them involved with the material or subject matter. • Incongruity and Conflict- Pose facts or statements that run contrary to the learners’ previous experiences. • Inquiry- Stimulate curiosity by posing questions or problems for the learners to solve. • Humor- Break up monotony and maintain interest by lightening the subject. The goal is to hold your learners attention, not to become a comedian. • Variability- Combine a variety of methods in presenting material
  20. 20. CONTD… RELEVANCE Emphasizing relevance within the instruction to increase motivation by using concrete language and examples with which the learner are familiar. There are six major strategies for accomplishing this: • Experience- Tell the learners how the new learning will use their existing skills. We best learn by building upon our pretest knowledge or skills. • Present worth- What will the subject matter do for me today? • Future matching- What will the subject matter do for me tomorrow? • Needs matching- Take advantage of the dynamics of achievement, risk taking, power, and affiliation (Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs) • Modeling- First of all, “Be what you want them to do”. Other strategies include guest speakers, videos etc., • Choice- Allow the learners to use different methods to pursue their work or allowing choice in how they organize it.
  21. 21. CONTD… CONFIDENCE • Help students understand their likelihood for success. If they feel they cannot meet the objectives or that the cost (time or effort) is too high, their motivation will decrease. • Provide objective and prerequisites- Help students estimate the probability by success by presenting performance requirements and evaluation criteria. Ensure the learners are aware of performance requirements and evaluate criteria. • Allow the success that is meaningful. • Grow the learners- allow for small steps of growth during the learning process. • Feedback-provide feedback and support internal attributions for success. • Learner control- learner should feel some degree of control over their learning and assessment. They should believe that their success is a direct result of the amount of effort they have put forth.
  22. 22. CONTD… SATISFACTION • Learning must be rewarding or satisfying in some ways, whether it is from a sense of achievement, praise from a teacher, or mere entertainment. • Make the learner feel as though the skill is useful or beneficial by providing opportunities to use newly acquired knowledge in a real setting. • Provide feedback and reinforcement. When learners appreciate the results, they will be motivated to learn. • Do not patronize (make them feel superior) the learner by over-rewarding easy tasks.
  23. 23. ASSURE MODEL
  24. 24. ASSURE Model • A- Analyze learners • S- State standards & objectives • S- Select strategies, technology, media & materials • U- Utilize technology, media & materials • R-Require learner participation • E- Evaluate & revise
  25. 25. ASSURE Model • A- Analyze learners • S- State standards & objectives • S- Select strategies, technology, media & materials • U- Utilize technology, media & materials • R-Require learner participation • E- Evaluate & revise
  26. 26. Contd… The ASSURE model is: • A procedural guide for planning and delivering instruction that integrates technology and media into the teaching process. • A systematic approach to writing lesson plans. • A plan used to help teachers organize instructional procedures. • A plan used to help teachers do an authentic assessment of student learning. • A model that can be used by all presenters.
  27. 27. Contd… Analyze Learner: • General characteristics: consider age, grade level, job or position, and cultural and socioeconomic factors of the learners. • Specific entry competencies: knowledge and skills that learners posses or lack- prerequisite skills, target skills, and attitudes. • Learning styles: the spectrum of psychological traits that affect how students perceive and respond to different stimuli, such as anxiety, aptitude, visual or auditory preference, motivation and so on. Select Methods, Media and Materials Selection criteria: • Media should be selected on the basis of student need. • Should follow learning objectives • Must be appropriate for the teaching format. • No single medium is total solution. • Should match the curriculum • Should contain clear and concise language
  28. 28. Contd… Utilize Media and Materials: There is “5 Ps” procedure for the utilization of media and materials: preview the materials, prepare the materials, prepare the environment, prepare the learners and provide the learning experience. Require Learner Participation: To be effective, instruction should require active mental engagement by learners. The activities should allow learners to practice the knowledge or skills and to give feedback. Evaluation and revise: After instruction, it is necessary to evaluate its impact and effectiveness and to assess student learning. If there are missed points, the teacher needs to revise the plan for the next time. • Evaluate student performance • Evaluate media components • Evaluate instructor performance
  29. 29. THANK YOU…