HistoryPrehistory, Ancient historyand The Middle Ages
History is the study of things thathappened in the past. History tells us things about how ourancestors lived: the food they ate, theclothes they wore and the tools theyused. History also tells us about importantevents, like the discovery of a new landor the invention of a new machine. The things that happened in the pastaffect our world today. History helps us to understand thepresent.
PREHISTORYPrehistory is the oldest and longestperiod of human history.It began more than one million yearsago with the origins of the human race.It ended about 5,500 years ago, withthe invention of writing.
Paleolithic (hunters)Human prehistory began with thePaleolithic Period. •During this time, human beings were nomads who moved from place to place. •They lived by hunting and fishing, and by gathering plant products, like fruits, seeds, nuts and roots. •They also learned to use fire and to make tools.
Neolithic (farmers)The Neolithic Period began about10,000 years ago. •During this period, human beings learned to cultivate plants and raise animals. •They became more sedentary because they didn’t need to move around to find food.
•Neolithic peoples built villages and towns.•They also manufactured products, likecloth, baskets and pottery.
The Metal AgesThe Metal Ages began about 6,000years ago. •During the Metal Ages people started using metals, like copper, tin, bronze and iron, to make tools and weapons. •People often used precious metals, like gold and silver, to make jewellery.
• They also used wheels to create new forms of land transport.• People started building the first cities.
Paleolithic periodSome of the most important discoveries from the Paleolithic Period are cave paintings.These paintings can tell us many things: _ Paleolithic people hunted large mammals, such as bison, mammoths and horses. _ They camped along large rivers and near seacoasts.Some of the most famous cave paintings in the world are in the Altamira caves in Santillana del Mar (Cantabria).
Neolithic periodNeolithic people built the first villages and towns on the peninsula.They cultivated wheat, oats and other grains. They also raised herds of goats and sheep.People learned to weave natural fibres to make cloth.They also baked clay pots in kilns to make them stronger.
Neolithic is the birth of arable and livestock farming
Neolithic Revolution birth of arable farming birth of livestock They realize that from animals temperature migrate to seeds of increases cooler places trees grow new onesThey start Men keep to grow and raise plants the animalsWheat, First goat, sheep,rice and first domestic ox, horse maize crops animals and dog sedentary
Metal agesDuring the Metal Ages, people startedusing large blocks of stone calledmegaliths to build monuments. The mostimportant megalithic monuments inSpain are called dolmens.
ANCIENT HISTORYAncient Greece The Roman Empire
ANCIENT HISTORYAncient history began with the invention ofwriting, about 5,500 years ago (the firstwriting system was inventing in Mesopotamia).It ended with the fall of the RomanEmpire, about 4,000 years later.In ancient times, major civilizations developedalong large rivers inMesopotamia, Egypt, India and China.Later, the ancient civilizations of Greece andRome developed along the coasts of theMediterranean Sea.
Ancient GreeceGreek civilization began to developabout 3,000 years ago.The ancient Greeks were farmers, butthey also founded prosperous cities, likeAthens and Sparta.Ancient Greeks invented democracy as anew form of government. They werefamous for their interest in philosophy,science and art.
The Roman EmpireThe city of Rome was founded in 753B.C.E.Rome had a powerful army. Theyconquered many territories in Europe,Asia and North Africa.The Romans spoken a language calledLatin. Many modern languages, likeItalian, French, Spanish and Portuguese,come from Latin.The Romans built many cities withimpressive monuments, like temples,amphitheatres, circuses, bridges andaqueducts.
SPAIN IN ANCIENT TIMESIberiansand Celts Roman Hispania Phoenicians, Greeks and Carthaginians
Iberians and CeltsTwo groups of people lived on the IberianPeninsula: Iberians and Celts.The Iberians lived along theMediterranean coast. The Celts occupiedthe northern and central areas of thepeninsula.
Both groups lived in small towns andcities that were built on hills, with wallsaround them for protection.Most Iberian and Celtic people lived bygrowing crops and raising animals, butthere were also many merchants andartisans.
Phoenicians, Greeks and CarthaginiansThe Phoenicians, Greeks and Carthaginiansestablished colonies along the eastern andsouthern coasts of the IberianPeninsula, places like Ampurias, Cartagenaand Cádiz.They were especially interested in buyingmetals, such as silver, tin and copper.They introduced the Iberians the use ofmoney.
Roman Hispania The Romans invaded the Iberian Peninsula and conquered the Iberians, Celts and Carthaginians. Then they named their new territory Hispania.• Hispania was part of the Roman Empire for more than 500 years. During that time, people in Hispania spoke Latin and followed Roman laws and customs.• Today, we can see many Roman monuments all over Spain, such as the aqueduct in Segovia, the theatre in Mérida .
THE MIDDLE AGESThe Middle Ages began in the 5thcentury C.E. and ended in the 15thcentury. During this time, Christianitybecame the main religion in the oldRoman territories. A new religion, Islam,also appeared during the Middle Ages.
The Middle Ages in Western Europe• In the beginning of the Middle Ages, there were many wars in Western Europe. This made it difficult for merchants to travel, so commerce decreased. Cities became smaller and poorer and many people moved to the countryside• The Catholic religion became important in all aspects of daily life.• Society was divided into three main groups: knights, clergy and peasants.• A new social and economic system developed, called feudalism.• In the 13th century, medieval cities started growing and becoming prosperous again.• Beautiful new palaces, cathedrals, town halls and other public buildings were also built.
The Middle Ages in Spain Muslim Spain Christian SpainInside the Great Mosque of Córdoba. Romanesque church (San Martín de Frómista) Palencia
Muslim SpainIn 711 C.E., Muslim armies conquered abig part of the Spanish territory. Itwas called Al-Andalus.
Al-Andalus was one of the most advancedsocieties in Europe.The Muslims of Al-Andalus built manybeautiful monuments, such as theAlhambra in Granada and the GreatMosque of Córdoba.
Christian Spain• Muslims didn’t conquer the mountainous areas in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. In those areas, many Christians lived and established independent kingdoms.• Between the 9th and the 15th centuries, the Christian kingdoms expanded to the south. Eventually, they reconquered the Iberian Peninsula.• Granada was the last Muslim kingdom on the peninsula. It fell to the Christians in 1492.
• In the Christian kingdoms of the north, most people lived in the countryside, in small towns and villages. There weren’t many big cities.• They built many castles, cathedrals, churches and monasteries that we can see today. A good example is the Gothic Cathedral of Burgos.