The European Middle Ages


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The European Middle Ages

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The European Middle Ages

  1. 1. CHAPTER 7 – THE RISE OF EUROPE 500 AD – 1500 AD
  2. 2. New Germanic Kingdoms  The Roman Empire falls in 476 AD  Following the fall of Rome, Germanic people started to move in and overrun lands once occupied by the Roman Empire.  By 500 AD, the Western Roman Empire had been replaced by a number of German kingdoms.  Constant fighting disrupts trade and government; people abandon cities.  Marks the beginning of the Middle Ages — period from 500 to 1500
  3. 3. The Decline of Learning  As cities are abandoned, level of learning declines  Knowledge of Greek language and culture is almost completely lost  Introduction of German language and mixing with Latin helps develop different dialects (Romance
  4. 4. Upheaval in Europe  Germanic people were constantly at war  Wars continually change borders between kingdoms  During this time of upheaval, the Church continues to grow and offers security
  5. 5. The Dark Ages  The Middle Ages are often times referred to as “the Dark Ages”.  Can you explain why this time period got this nickname?
  6. 6. Kingdom of the Franks  Only one Germanic kingdom proved to be a lasting one – the kingdom of the Franks.  The kingdom was established by Clovis, a strong military leader around 500AD.  Clovis was able to unite the Franks as well as other Germanic tribes into one kingdom.  Clovis was also the first Germanic ruler to convert to Christianity.  His conversion gained him the support of a small, yet growing sect, the Roman Catholic Church, who was eager to have the friendship of a
  7. 7. Clovis’ Conversion to Christianity  What is so important about Clovis converting to Christianity? Discuss.  Compare this to politicians nowadays.  What did his conversion do for the Catholic church?
  8. 8. Kingdom of the Franks  Clovis had established a kingdom that stretched from the Pyrenees Mountains in the southwest, to German lands in the east. (Modern day France and West Germany.)
  9. 9. Charles Martel  During the 600’s and 700’s, the Frankish kings started to lose power.  Islam was growing and spreading throughout the Middle East and Africa and into Europe.  The Church and Christian kingdoms became weary of these invaders.  In 732, a man named Charles Martel rallied Christian warriors to defeat Muslim armies who were
  10. 10. The Carolingians  With his triumphant victory, Charles Martel took steps to assume the kingship for himself and his family.  This lays the foundation for a
  11. 11. Europe in Turmoil  When Charles Martel, king of the Frank’s dies, Europe is thrust into turmoil.  At this time the Franks were falling back into barbarian ways, neglecting their education and religion.  Many people were still pagans.  The Church was also having its own struggles.  In 771, Martel’s grandson,
  12. 12. Charlemagne  Charlemagne was raised to be a devout Christian.  Charlemagne was determined to strengthen his realm and to bring order to Europe.  His devotion to the Church became the driving force in his life.
  13. 13. King of the Franks? Or King of the Burgers?
  14. 14. Charlemagne the Warrior  In 772, he launched a military campaign that would last more than 30 years and included more than 50 military expeditions.  At 6’4, Charlemagne was a tall and a powerful warrior and often accompanied and fight along side his troops during these campaigns.  Charlemagne was an ambitious king, aggressive and ruthless.  He had the ability to
  15. 15. Charlemagne Brings Order to Europe  By 800 Charlemagne was the undisputed ruler of Western Europe.  What had once been unified territory of the Roman Empire was once again under a new central authority, that of Charlemagne.  His vast realm encompassed what are now France, Switzerland, Belgium, and The Netherlands and included half of present-day Italy and Germany, and parts of Austria and Spain.  By establishing a central government over Western Europe, Charlemagne
  16. 16. Did you know?  Despite his great military record and being the king of such as vast territory, Charlemagne was very uneducated in his younger years.  In fact, he was illiterate and could not read or write.  This did not stop him, he tried his best to learn himself and encouraged Here, can you read this? Looks like Chinese or something to me…
  17. 17. Charlemagne and the Church  Devoutly Christian, Charlemagne would not only conquer his territories, he would convert the people as well. Sometimes, at the tip of a sword.  The Church also relied on Charlemagne for protection and leadership.  Charlemagne ruled and protected the Christian Kingdom, and since the Church was in Rome, it could be said that he had the
  18. 18. Charlemagne’s Coronation  On Christmas Day in 800, while Charlemagne knelt in prayer in Saint Peter's in Rome, Pope Leo III placed a golden crown on the bowed head of the king, crowning him the first Holy Roman Emperor, the divinely appointed leader of the earthly Christian world.  His head was anointed with holy oil, and the Pope renamed Charlemagne as Emperor and Augustus.  Germanic power, the Church,
  19. 19.  How important is Charlemagne to Europe? Discuss.  How did he help strengthen his realm?  How did he help the spread of Christianity?
  20. 20. Charlemagne’s Legacy  Charlemagne unites western Europe and spreads Christianity.  He encourages learning and orders monasteries to open schools  Germanic power, Church, heritage of Roman Empire now joined together as one  Because of his actions as a ruler, Charlemagne is
  21. 21. Following Charlemagne  Charlemagne dies in 814; his son, Louis, rules poorly  Charlemagne’s three grandsons fight for control of empire  In 843 they divide empire into three kingdoms  Europe once again, becomes unstable.