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The Crusades

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Overview of the Crusades for 7th grade Social Studies, with focus on persecution and religious conflict.

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The Crusades

  1. 1. T H E C R U S A D E S I N T R O D U C T I O N T O
  2. 2. D O Y O U T H I N K I T I S O K T O G O T O WA R ? PA I R - S H A R E : W H E N I S O K T O G O T O WA R ? W H E N I S I T N O T O K T O G O T O WA R ?
  3. 3. T H E C R U S A D E S The crusades were a pilgrimage and a series of holy wars for Christians. The goal of these wars was to gain control of Christian holy places within and nearby the city of Jerusalem. People referred to this region as the “Holy Land.” “Crusade” is related to the Latin word for cross (crux) - so those helping in the crusades were said to “take up the cross.”
  4. 4. T H E H O LY L A N D The area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean sea - includes the land of modern-day Israel, and some surrounding areas. * This map shows current borders
  5. 5. T H E H O LY L A N D The Holy Land includes Bethlehem, the city where Jesus was born… … and Jerusalem, the city where Jesus was crucified. …Jericho, the city where Jesus was baptized and became a religious leader…
  6. 6. T H E H O LY L A N D Before the crusades began, Europe and the Middle East were divided into many Kingdoms and Empires. In the 1000s, Turkish Muslims invaded and captured the City of Jerusalem, killing Christians who were living in or visiting the area. It was no longer safe for Christians to be in the Holy Land.
  7. 7. P O P E U R B A N I I The leader of the Catholic Church, Pope Urban II, called for the first crusade to take place. He challenged Europeans to fight to reclaim access to the Holy Land. The Pope promised that crusaders would have all of their sins forgiven by the Church.
  8. 8. T H E F I R S T C R U S A D E About 5000 Europeans set out for Jerusalem. Some of these people were peasants with no military skills: most of the peasants were killed before reaching Jerusalem.
  9. 9. Knight: A member of the nobility who served his lord as a soldier. T H E F I R S T C R U S A D E Noblemen and Knights also led armies to Jerusalem. In 1099, they succeeded in conquering the city and taking control of the Holy Land.
  10. 10. What do you observe happening in this illustration?
  11. 11. We will support the crusades because it is good to do so in the eyes of God! It takes good deeds to get into heaven, and God will certainly see my crusade as a good deed! Crusading was seen as the ultimate way to show devotion to the Christian God, and in the Middle Ages, nothing was more important to people than their religion. They even had the mindset back then that life was unimportant, because it was a “pilgrimage” to the final destination - heaven. W H Y D I D P E O P L E C H O O S E T O C R U S A D E ? 1
  12. 12. The Byzantine Empire is in danger! If we help them, perhaps we can create unity between East and West again. The Pope will forgive all of my sins if I join the crusades! People went on Crusades because the Catholic Church and its leaders wanted them to. The Pope believed that the crusades had the potential to create unity. Some hoped that the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church would reunite. Others hoped that warring European kingdoms would put aside their own conflicts and focus on the crusades instead. W H Y D I D P E O P L E C H O O S E T O C R U S A D E ? 2
  13. 13. People were afraid of the growing power of Islam, especially because there had been hundreds of threatening Muslim attacks on Europe since the death of Muhammed in 632 AD. Islam was a religion that was spreading “by the sword.” Some people wanted to counter the expansion of Islam by expanding Christianity. W H Y D I D P E O P L E C H O O S E T O C R U S A D E ? 3 1080 AD: Red dots = Islamic attacks in the name of expansion and Jihad. Green = Islamic political and religious control.
  14. 14. Q U O T E S F R O M J E S U S : “A new command I give you: love one another, as I have loved you.” ‘“Put your sword back in its place,” Jesus said to him, “for all who draw the sword will die by the sword.”’ “Love your enemies. Do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you, pray for those who mistreat you.” “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the children of God.” (in the Bible)
  15. 15. T H E S E C O N D C R U S A D E In 1145, Pope Eugenious III called for another crusade because parts of the Holy Land had been recaptured by Muslims. French and German armies failed to win any major victories.
  16. 16. J E W I S H P E R S E C U T I O N While traveling to and from the Holy Land, some crusading armies murdered Jews and destroyed Jewish towns. They interpreted the crusades to be a war against all non-Christians (which was not the original intent). The Pope wants us to fight the Muslims…but the Jews are also evil! The crusades should be a war against both!
  17. 17. S A L A D I N He unified Muslims in the Holy Land under his rule and easily reconquered Jerusalem in 1187. News of this event terrified Europeans, and prompted Pope Gregory VIII to call for a third crusade.
  18. 18. T H E T H I R D C R U S A D E Armies from England, France, and Germany attempt to re- take Jerusalem, but fail. But Richard the Lionheart, King of England, makes an agreement with Saladin that Christians can once again safely travel to Jerusalem on religious pilgrimage.
  19. 19. F O U RT H A N D F I F T H C R U S A D E S Leaders of the fourth crusade decided to attack Constantinople instead of Jerusalem in order to gain political power. :( Twenty years later, armies failed to re-take Jerusalem again in the fifth crusade.
  20. 20. T H E S I X T H C R U S A D E This was a mostly political crusade. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (modern day Germany) made a treaty with the Leader of Egypt that gave Christians control over parts of Jerusalem. The Christians were now sharing control of Jerusalem with Muslims.
  21. 21. T H E S I X T H , S E V E N T H , A N D E I G H T H Muslims broke the treaty and took over Jerusalem in 1244. In the 7th crusade, European armies were defeated in 48 hours. In the 8th crusade, European armies were ravaged by disease, and failed again.
  22. 22. J E W S I N T H E C R U S A D E S Jews often joined with the Muslims in order to defend Jerusalem from the Christian invaders. The Christian crusaders are attacking our people in Europe! They are trying to take our Holy Land! We should help the Muslims stop them.
  23. 23. T H E E N D O F T H E C R U S A D E S A ninth crusade was attempted, but the European armies were too small to make an impactful attack on the Holy Land. The crusades slowly came to a stop because other internal conflicts in Europe overshadowed the desire to reclaim the Holy Land. The “Holy Land” was controlled by Muslims until Jews began to move to the area in large numbers beginning in the 1920s, the nation of Israel was created in 1948, and Jews finally became the majority population.
  24. 24. E F F E C T S O F T H E C R U S A D E S • Christians never controlled the Holy Land again. • Many ideas and items were exchanged between Europe and the Middle East. • Bitterness between Christians and Jews increased. • The Byzantine Empire and its capitol of Constantinople were greatly weakened. Trade increased. Europeans were buying more foods, spices, and products.
  25. 25. D O Y O U T H I N K I T I S O K T O G O T O WA R ? PA I R - S H A R E : W H E N I S O K T O G O T O WA R ? W H E N I S I T N O T O K T O G O T O WA R ?

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