European Middle Ages Update


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European Middle Ages Update

  1. 1. 500-1200
  2. 3. <ul><li>Your family can decide to leave Hackensack if they wished. </li></ul><ul><li>A family living in the country side in Medieval Europe did not have that ability </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>The Map on the right shows 25 miles from Hackensack High School </li></ul>
  4. 5. Charlemagne
  5. 6. <ul><li>Many Germanic kingdoms that succeeded the Roman Empire were reunited under Charlemagne’s empire. </li></ul>
  6. 7. POPE
  7. 8. <ul><li>Germanic troops have over run the Western Roman Empire by the 5 th Century. Results include: </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption of trade </li></ul><ul><li>Downfall of cities </li></ul><ul><li>Population shifts </li></ul><ul><li>Decline of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of common or written language </li></ul>
  8. 9. Holy Roman Emperor
  9. 10. <ul><li>Gaul is a former Roman Province located in Modern –Day France. </li></ul><ul><li>Clovis becomes a Christian while fighting another Germanic tribe. </li></ul><ul><li>Clovis is believed to be the first Germanic leader to embrace Christianity. </li></ul>Coin depicting Clovis “King of France”
  10. 11. <ul><li>Clovis gets support from the Christian Church which allows him to defeat the other Germanic Armies. </li></ul><ul><li>This alliance marked the beginning of a powerful partnership. </li></ul>Statue of the baptism of Clovis
  11. 12. <ul><li>To adapt to life outside of cities, the Church built religious communities called monasteries . Men called monks gave up all of their private possessions to become servants of god. </li></ul><ul><li>Benedict, an Italian Monk set down a list of strict, yet practical rules for Monks. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Gregory The Great became pope in 590. </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory expands the Church’s influence beyond religion into politics. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the first time the church is involved in secular activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory I raised armies, repaired roads and helped the poor and negotiated peace treaties. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Gregory felt that the region from Italy to England from Spain to Western Germany fell under his responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of a church influenced kingdom is a central theme of the Middle Ages. </li></ul>Modern map of the territory Gregory held influence over
  14. 15. <ul><li>While the King held all of the official power in the kingdom. Unofficially the power was held by the major domo which means mayor of the palace. </li></ul><ul><li>The major domo commanded the armies and made policy. </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Charles Martel, Major Domo, 719 </li></ul><ul><li>Joshua Bolten, White House Chief of Staff, 2007 </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Charles Martel was major domo of the Frankish kingdom in the 700’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Martel means “Charles the Hammer” </li></ul><ul><li>Martel extended the Franks’ reign to the north, south and east. </li></ul><ul><li>He defeated a Muslim army from Spain at the Battle of Tours. </li></ul><ul><li>A Muslim victory at Tours would have given them control of Western Europe. </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Son of Charles Martel (Martel was not king) </li></ul><ul><li>Pepin the Short is a mistranslation. </li></ul><ul><li>Pepin defended Rome from attackers. </li></ul><ul><li>In return, the pope makes Pepin “King by the grace of god </li></ul><ul><li>Father of Charlemagne </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Charlemagne is the first great ruler after the fall of the Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne used his conquests to spread Christianity. </li></ul><ul><li>In 800, Charlemagne traveled to Rome to protect Pope Leo III. In return, the pope crowned him Emperor </li></ul>Charlemagne united the Germanic Empires, the Church and the heritage of the Roman Empire
  19. 21. <ul><li>Charlemagne sent royal agents to make sure that landowners (called counts) governed justly </li></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne regularly visited every part of his kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>He judged cases, settled disputes and rewarded faithful followers </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>Charlemagne makes his son, Louis the Pious emperor. </li></ul><ul><li>Louis’ three sons, Lothair, Charles the Bald and Louis the German fight each other for the empire . </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>The Treaty of Verdun divides the Empire into three weaker empires. </li></ul><ul><li>As central authority breaks down, the lack of strong rulers leads to a new system of governing and landholding. </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>After the treaty of Verdun, Charlemagne’s three feuding grandsons broke the kingdom up even further. </li></ul><ul><li>Part of this territory also became a battleground as new waves of invaders attacked Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>The political turmoil and constant warfare led to the rise of feudalism- a military and political system based on land ownership and personal loyalty. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Why do these NFL teams take the names of European invaders from 1000 years ago?
  24. 26. <ul><li>Vikings set sail from Scandinavia, a wintry, wooded region in Northern Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>The Vikings are also known as Norsemen. </li></ul><ul><li>They took pride in violent names like Eric Bloodaxe and Thorfinn Skullsplitter </li></ul>Modern-day Scandinavia
  25. 27. <ul><li>Tuesday is named for the Norse god Tyr, the Norse equivalent of the Roman god Mars, the Spanish word Martes is based on Tyr as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Wednesday is named for the Norse god Woden. </li></ul><ul><li>Thursday is named for the Norse god Thor </li></ul><ul><li>Friday is named for the Norse goddess Frigg. </li></ul>
  26. 28. A Viking ship, known as a Prow, held 300 warriors who took turns rowing the ships 72 oars
  27. 29. <ul><li>Vikings were traders, farmers and outstanding explorers. Leif Ericson likely reached North America 500 years before Columbus </li></ul><ul><li>As Vikings accepted Christianity, they stopped raiding monasteries. </li></ul><ul><li>A warming trend in Europe’s climate made farming easier in Scandinavia. </li></ul><ul><li>As agriculture increased, the seafaring life of a Viking became less necessary. </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>The Magyars are a group of nomadic peoples who were superb horseback riders. The Magyars swept across the Danube and invaded Western Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>The Magyars captured people to sell as slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>They overran Northern Italy and reached as far west as the Rhineland and Burgundy </li></ul>The Magyars came from present day Hungary. The Hungarians today speak the language of Magyar.
  29. 31. <ul><li>Muslims controlled the Mediterranean Sea and disrupted trade. </li></ul><ul><li>The Muslims plundered Europe during the 800s and 900s. </li></ul><ul><li>They attacked Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts and as far inland as Switzerland </li></ul>
  30. 32. Invasions of Vikings, Magyars and Muslims.
  31. 33. <ul><li>In 911 Rollo the Viking and King Charles the Simple of France made peace. </li></ul><ul><li>This marked the beginning of the end of the Viking invasions in Western Europe. </li></ul>
  32. 34. FEUDALISM
  33. 35. <ul><li>Feudalism is based on mutual obligations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In exchange for military protection, a lord or landowner granted land which was called a fief. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The person receiving the fief was called a vassal </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. 1. Military service 2. A percentage of crops 3. Administration of courts 4. Fee collection Feudalism is based on mutual obligations.
  35. 37. <ul><li>At the peak of the pyramid is the King. </li></ul><ul><li>Next are the Nobles </li></ul><ul><li>The next step are the vassals and church officials </li></ul><ul><li>They were followed by knights , mounted warriors who pledged to defend their lord’s land in exchange for fiefs </li></ul><ul><li>The peasants who worked the fields were at the bottom of the pyramid </li></ul>
  36. 38. <ul><li>In the feudal system, status defined a person’s prestige and power. </li></ul><ul><li>There were three groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who fought (nobles and knights) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who prayed (Church Officials) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who worked (peasants) </li></ul></ul>
  37. 39. 1. The Clergy – spiritual guidance 2. The Nobles – protection and justice 3. The Peasants – agricultural labor
  38. 40. Inheritance
  39. 41. <ul><li>Serfs were people who could not lawfully leave the place they were born. </li></ul><ul><li>They were not slaves, they could not be bought or sold. </li></ul><ul><li>The wealth of the feudal lords came from the labor of peasants </li></ul>
  40. 42. <ul><li>The manor was the lord’s estate. </li></ul><ul><li>The lord provided the serfs with housing and fields, in return the serfs worked the fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women alike worked in the fields. </li></ul>
  41. 43. <ul><li>Peasants pay a high price for life on a manor </li></ul><ul><li>They pay tax on all grain ground in the lord’s mill. </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants also paid a marriage tax. </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant families had to pay a tax to the church known as a tithe . </li></ul><ul><li>A tithe represented one-tenth of their income </li></ul>
  42. 44. <ul><li>The Catholic Church </li></ul>
  43. 45. <ul><li>Church leaders and political leaders competed for power and authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Today many religious leaders still voice their opinions on political issues. </li></ul>
  44. 46. <ul><li>Just like feudalism, the Church is structured with different ranks of clergy , or religious officials. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pope remained the head of the Church, followed by bishops and priests. </li></ul><ul><li>Priests were the lowest level, and the main contact most people had with the Church. </li></ul>
  45. 47. <ul><li>Christians believed that faith led to everlasting life in heaven. </li></ul><ul><li>Priests and other religious officials administered sacraments which are important religious ceremonies </li></ul>Sacraments include baptism, and confirmation. Christians believed these sacraments were the key to everlasting life in heaven.
  46. 48. <ul><li>All medieval Christians, kings and peasants alike were subject to canon law which is the law of the church. </li></ul><ul><li>This law extended to matters such as marriage and religious practice </li></ul>Courts were also established courts to try people accused of violating canon law.
  47. 49. <ul><li>Excommunication is banishment from the Church. Popes used this threat in disputes with kings and political rulers. </li></ul><ul><li>If an excommunicated king continued to violate the pope’s law, he could be faced with interdict, which forbid sacraments and religious services from being performed in the king’s lands. </li></ul><ul><li>Without sacraments, the people could not expect eternal life in heaven and would riot </li></ul>
  48. 50. <ul><li>The code of chivalry for knights glorified combat and romantic love. </li></ul><ul><li>Chivalry has shaped modern ideas of romance in Western cultures. </li></ul>
  49. 51. <ul><li>Cavalier and chivalry both come from the French chevalier which means knight </li></ul><ul><li>The final four is the nickname of the NCAA basketball tournament </li></ul>
  50. 52. <ul><li>Charles Martel organized the Frankish army into troops of armored horsemen, knights. </li></ul><ul><li>The development of the saddle and stirrups made it easier to fight on horseback. </li></ul>The knight is still seen as a symbol of war and battle 1000 years later
  51. 53. <ul><li>Chivalry is a complex set of ideas which demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His earthly feudal lord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His heavenly lord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His chosen lady </li></ul></ul>
  52. 54. <ul><li>The chivalrous knight also protected the weak and the poor </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal knight was loyal, brave and courteous. </li></ul><ul><li>Many knights failed to live to these standards </li></ul>
  53. 55. <ul><li>Sons of nobles began training for knighthood at a young age. </li></ul><ul><li>After a year or two of training, they entered mock battles called tournaments </li></ul>Trumpets blared and lords and ladies cheered. Tournament winners could demand large ransoms from defeated knights.
  54. 56. <ul><li>Unlike tournaments, actual battles were quite violent and bloody. </li></ul><ul><li>Castle battles are among the most bloody. </li></ul>The home of the lord and lady, a castle under siege was a gory sight. Defenders poured boiling water, hot oil or molten lead while archers on the roof fired arrows and bolts at attackers.
  55. 57. <ul><li>A Siege Tower had a platform on top that lowered like a drawbridge. It could support soldiers and weapons </li></ul><ul><li>A Battering Ram was made of heavy timber with a sharp metal tip. It swung like a pendulum to crack castle walls or knock down a drawbridge </li></ul>
  56. 58. <ul><li>A Trebuchet worked like a giant slingshot. </li></ul><ul><li>It propelled objects up to a distance of 980 feet (More than 3 football fields) </li></ul><ul><li>A Trebuchet was used to launch </li></ul><ul><li>pots of burning lime </li></ul><ul><li>boulders </li></ul><ul><li>severed human heads </li></ul><ul><li>captured soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>diseased cows </li></ul><ul><li>dead horses </li></ul>
  57. 59. <ul><li>A tortoise moved slowly on wheels and sheltered soldiers from falling arrows. </li></ul><ul><li>A mangonel flung huge rocks that crashed into castle walls. It propelled objects up to 1300 feet. </li></ul>
  58. 60. <ul><li>The Song of Roland is one of the most famous medieval poems. It praises a band of French soldiers who dies in a battle under Charlemagne. </li></ul>
  59. 61. <ul><li>Troubadours were poet-musicians at the castle-courts of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>They composed short songs about the joys and sorrows of romantic love </li></ul>Troubadours then and now.
  60. 62. <ul><li>The Church viewed women as inferior to men. </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic love placed women on a pedestal </li></ul><ul><li>As Middle Ages progress, noblewomen possess less power than they had in earlier years. </li></ul>
  61. 63. <ul><li>By 1400 some towns have as many as 10,000 people! </li></ul><ul><li>How many people live in Hackensack alone? </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated 43, 671 </li></ul>
  62. 64. <ul><li>A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Each guild made rules to help its members earn good wages. </li></ul><ul><li>Guilds are similar to what we today call unions. </li></ul><ul><li>What type of workers today join unions? </li></ul>
  63. 66. <ul><li>To train to be in a guild, a boy who wanted to learn a certain craft became an apprentice. </li></ul><ul><li>He worked with different master craftsmen to learn his craft. </li></ul><ul><li>Where do we hear the word apprentice today? </li></ul>
  64. 67. <ul><li>The name of Donald Trump’s TV show takes its name from a medieval term </li></ul>