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13.4 the power of the church (1)

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13.4 the power of the church (1)

  1. 1. The Power of the ChurchThe Power of the ChurchChapter 13,Chapter 13,Section 4Section 4
  2. 2. Far-Reaching Authority of the ChurchFar-Reaching Authority of the ChurchIntroductionIntroduction– Pope Gelasius I (served as pope from 492-496) heldPope Gelasius I (served as pope from 492-496) helda view of two powers in the worlda view of two powers in the world““holy authority of bishops” (auctoritas sacrata pontificum)holy authority of bishops” (auctoritas sacrata pontificum)““royal power” (regalis potestas)royal power” (regalis potestas)– He held that in spiritual matters the state should bowHe held that in spiritual matters the state should bowto the pope, but in political matters the pope to give into the pope, but in political matters the pope to give into the state.to the state.– These ideas did not work out in reality. The churchThese ideas did not work out in reality. The churchand the state struggled with each other for powerand the state struggled with each other for powerthroughout the middle ages.throughout the middle ages.
  3. 3. Far-Reaching Authority of the ChurchFar-Reaching Authority of the ChurchThe Structure of the ChurchThe Structure of the Church– Power within the Church is organized byPower within the Church is organized bystatus; the pope is the supreme authoritystatus; the pope is the supreme authority– Clergy-Clergy--religious officials—includes bishops,-religious officials—includes bishops,priests, and otherspriests, and others– Bishops supervise priests and settle ChurchBishops supervise priests and settle Churchdisputesdisputes
  4. 4. Far-Reaching Authority of the ChurchFar-Reaching Authority of the ChurchReligion as a Unifying ForceReligion as a Unifying Force– Religion is important in the Middle Ages;Religion is important in the Middle Ages;shared beliefs bond peopleshared beliefs bond people– Clergy administers theClergy administers the sacramentssacraments—rites to—rites toachieve salvationachieve salvation– Village church is a place of worship andVillage church is a place of worship andcelebrationcelebration
  5. 5. Sacraments in Western ChristianitySacraments in Western ChristianityRoman CatholicRoman Catholic ProtestantProtestantBaptismBaptismConfirmationConfirmationHoly CommunionHoly CommunionReconciliationReconciliation(confession)(confession)Anointing of the SickAnointing of the SickMatrimonyMatrimonyHoly OrdersHoly OrdersBaptismBaptismThe Lord’s SupperThe Lord’s Supper(Holy Communion)(Holy Communion)
  6. 6. Far-Reaching Authority of the ChurchFar-Reaching Authority of the ChurchThe Law of the ChurchThe Law of the Church– The Church has a system of justice to guide people’sThe Church has a system of justice to guide people’sconductconduct– All medieval Christians expected to obeyAll medieval Christians expected to obey canon lawcanon law—Church law—Church law– Canon law governs marriages and religious practicesCanon law governs marriages and religious practices– Popes have power over political leaders throughPopes have power over political leaders throughthreat of:threat of:ExcommunicationExcommunication—banishment from Church, denial of—banishment from Church, denial ofsalvationsalvationInterdictionInterdiction—king’s subjects denied sacraments and services—king’s subjects denied sacraments and services– Kings and emperors were expected to obey pope’sKings and emperors were expected to obey pope’scommands.commands.
  7. 7. The Church and the Holy Roman EmpireThe Church and the Holy Roman EmpireOtto I Allies with the ChurchOtto I Allies with the Church– Otto I (Otto the Great) is crowned king ofOtto I (Otto the Great) is crowned king ofGermany in 936Germany in 936– Limits strength of nobles with help of clergyLimits strength of nobles with help of clergy– Gains support of bishops and abbots (headsGains support of bishops and abbots (headsof monasteries)of monasteries)– Invades Italy on pope’s behalf; pope crownsInvades Italy on pope’s behalf; pope crownshim emperor in 962him emperor in 962
  8. 8. The Church and the Holy Roman EmpireThe Church and the Holy Roman EmpireSigns of Future ConflictsSigns of Future Conflicts– Otto’s German-Italian lands become HolyOtto’s German-Italian lands become HolyRoman EmpireRoman Empire– Holy Roman Empire is the strongestHoly Roman Empire is the strongestEuropean power until about 1100European power until about 1100
  9. 9. The Emperor Clashes with the PopeThe Emperor Clashes with the PopeEmperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VIIEmperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII– Pope Gregory VII bansPope Gregory VII bans lay investiturelay investiture—kings—kingsappointing Church officialsappointing Church officials– Henry IV orders pope to resign; Gregory VIIHenry IV orders pope to resign; Gregory VIIexcommunicates Henryexcommunicates HenryShowdown at ConossaShowdown at Conossa– Henry goes to Canossa, Italy, to beg GregoryHenry goes to Canossa, Italy, to beg Gregoryforgiveness (seeforgiveness (see primary sourceprimary source))– Gregory forgives Henry, buy lay investitureGregory forgives Henry, buy lay investitureproblem is not solvedproblem is not solved
  10. 10. The Emperor Clashes with the PopeThe Emperor Clashes with the PopeConcordat of WormsConcordat of Worms– Concordat of Worms is 1122 compromise winConcordat of Worms is 1122 compromise winWorms, GermanyWorms, Germany– Compromise: pope appoints bishops,Compromise: pope appoints bishops,emperor can veto appointmentemperor can veto appointment
  11. 11. This is an illustration ofthe concept of “layinvestiture.”In this picture a king fromthe Middle Ages ishanding a bishop his“shepherd’s crook” asymbol of the office ofbishop.The Catholic Churchinsisted that bishopswere chosen by thePope, not by kings.
  12. 12. Disorder in the EmpireDisorder in the EmpireThe Reign of Frederick IThe Reign of Frederick I– In 1152, Frederick I becomes king; dominatesIn 1152, Frederick I becomes king; dominatesGerman princesGerman princes– Disorder breaks out whenever he leavesDisorder breaks out whenever he leavesGermanyGermany– Frederick invades Italy, meets defeat atFrederick invades Italy, meets defeat atLegnano in 1176Legnano in 1176– Empire collapses after Frederick’s death inEmpire collapses after Frederick’s death in11901190
  13. 13. Disorder in the EmpireDisorder in the EmpireGerman State’s Remain SeparateGerman State’s Remain Separate– German kings after Frederick try to reviveGerman kings after Frederick try to reviveempireempire– German princes, who elect kings, prefer toGerman princes, who elect kings, prefer tokeep them weakkeep them weak
  14. 14. Primary SourcePrimary Source“There, having laid aside all the belongings ofroyalty, wretchedly, with bare feet and clad inwool, he [Henry IV] continued for three days tostand before the gate of the castle. Nor did hedesist from imploring with many tears the aidand consolation of the apostolic mercy until hehad moved all of those who were present there.”POPE GREGORY, in Basic Documents inMedieval History

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