Charlemagne unites germanic kingdoms


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Charlemagne unites germanic kingdoms

  1. 1. Warm-Up (ESOL) <ul><li>Please copy this onto your FLASH card. </li></ul><ul><li>Take out your HOMEWORK to be checked and reviewed. </li></ul>FRONT BACK Charlemagne Powerful Frankish ruler who built a huge empire; was crowned emperor of the “Roman Empire” by Pope Leo III
  2. 2. Warm-Up (Honors/Gifted) <ul><li>Imagine all of the schools, colleges, libraries and computers were destroyed. </li></ul><ul><li>Now imagine all the teachers and doctors quit because no one was paying them. </li></ul><ul><li>What would the world be like? Take 5-10 minutes to write a paragraph about this. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Many Germanic kingdoms that succeeded the Roman Empire were reunited under Charlemagne’s empire. CHARLEMAGNE UNITES GERMANIC KINGDOMS
  4. 4. Middle Ages <ul><li>Medieval period </li></ul><ul><li>A.D. 500-1500 </li></ul><ul><li>New society rooted in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical heritage of Rome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customs of various Germanic tribes </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Invasions of Western Europe <ul><li>What was the immediate cause of the fall of the Western Roman Empire again? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right! Germanic invasions!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repeated warfare and invasions altered the economy, government, and culture of the people in the Western Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy : Disruption of trade led to the collapse of businesses, breakdown of European cities as economic centers, and scarcity of money. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government : cities were abandoned as centers of administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture : nobles (wealthy landowners) retreated to the rural areas when cities collapsed; cities no longer had strong leadership; people moved to the rural areas and began farming; population became rural </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. SURVIVAL MODE <ul><li>What do people need for survival? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food & water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do you NOT care about when trying to survive? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc… </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Decline of Learning <ul><li>Germanic invaders were illiterate </li></ul><ul><li>Romans who moved into rural areas became less concerned about education </li></ul><ul><li>Priests and other church officials were literate </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of Greek became lost (but we still have that knowledge today…SO…bonus point: WHO PRESERVED IT???) </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic tribes had a rich oral tradition of songs and legends but no writing </li></ul>
  8. 8. Loss of a Common Language <ul><li>Mixing of Germanic-speaking peoples with Romans  change in Latin </li></ul><ul><li>Different dialects emerged </li></ul><ul><li>800s: French, Spanish, and other Roman-based languages evolved from Latin </li></ul><ul><li>Various languages = continued breakup of a once unified empire </li></ul>
  9. 9. Germanic Kingdoms emerge <ul><li>400s-600s: small Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s think about this… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which of the five traits of a civilization is necessary to maintain a civilization? In other words, if this trait disappeared, so could a civilization… </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. So…which institution remained in the Western Roman Empire? <ul><li>Political institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Economic institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Educational institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Religious institutions </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Church <ul><li>The Church was the sole surviving institution of the Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>During this time of political chaos, the Church provided order and security. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Concept of Government Changes <ul><li>Rome: </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty to public government and written laws </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship in a public state </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic Kingdoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Family ties and personal loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Small communities governed by unwritten rules and tradition </li></ul>
  14. 14. Germanic Society <ul><li>Band of warriors pledged their loyalty to a Germanic chief </li></ul><ul><li>Followers lived in lord’s hall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He gave them food, weapons and treasure. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warriors fought to the death at lord’s side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outliving him was a disgrace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germanic warriors did not feel obligated to obey a king they did not know nor did they feel obligated to obey an official sent to collect taxes or administer justice in the name of an emperor they’d never met. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress on personal ties made it difficult to establish orderly government for large territories </li></ul>
  15. 15. Clovis & the Franks <ul><li>Gaul (present-day France & Switzerland) </li></ul><ul><li>Franks held power </li></ul><ul><li>Clovis was the leader; brought Christianity to the region </li></ul><ul><li>496: Clovis prayed to the Christian God for help in battle; they won; they converted </li></ul><ul><li>Church in Rome welcomed his conversion and supported his campaigns against other Germanic tribes </li></ul><ul><li>511: Clovis united the Franks into one kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we care? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clovis + Roman Church = the beginning of a marriage of political and religious institutions </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Religion in the Middle Ages <ul><li>Monasteries were established to adjust to rural ways of living and became best-educated communities </li></ul><ul><li>Monks/nuns and their illuminated manuscripts helped to preserve part of Rome’s intellectual heritage. </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became Pope and broadened the authority of the papacy (pope’s office) beyond its spiritual role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made the Church a secular power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pope’s palace became center of Roman government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used church revenue to raise armies, repair roads, and help the poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiated treaties with invaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Region from Italy to England and Spain to Germany fell under his responsibility </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Carolingian Dynasty <ul><li>Ruled from 751-987 </li></ul><ul><li>Started by Pepin the Short </li></ul><ul><li>Son, Charles, ruled the kingdom after him </li></ul><ul><li>Charles became known as Charlemagne (Charles the Great) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Charlemagne <ul><li>Built an empire larger than any since Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered lots of land </li></ul><ul><li>Spread Christianity through his conquests </li></ul><ul><li>First to reunite Western Europe since the Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>800: empire larger than Byzantine Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Most powerful king in Western Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Crushed an unruly mob who had attacked Pope Leo III </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pope crowned him emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why do we care? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This was the FIRST time a pope had claimed the political right to confer the title “Roman Emperor” on a European king. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This event signaled the joining of Germanic power, the Church, and the heritage of the Roman Empire. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Warm-Up – Honors/Gifted <ul><li>Complete QUIZ </li></ul>
  20. 20. Charlemagne leads a revival…. <ul><li>In education! </li></ul><ul><li>He actually was illiterate but dedicated himself to learning how to read and write. </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded himself with English, German, Italian, and Spanish scholars. </li></ul><ul><li>Opened a palace school for his children </li></ul><ul><li>Ordered monasteries to open schools to train future monks and priests </li></ul>
  21. 21. Charlemagne’s heirs <ul><li>Son Louis the Pious succeeded him </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Devoutly religious but politically ineffective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Charlemagne’s three grandsons fought each other for control and essentially divided it with the signing of the Treaty of Verdun in 843. </li></ul><ul><li>Carolingian kings lost power, and central authority broke down </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of strong rulers led to new system of governing and landholding: feudalism </li></ul>