Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico
Facilitator
word structure
     Rootword - car, beauty, write, near
     Root + Affixes – cars, written, nearly,
                   ...
   morphemes –parts of words that carry meaning
    - smallest unit of meaning or
     grammatical function

   rootword...
Polysyllabic Words       Rootword Prefix Suffix                                      Morphemes
1. careless              ca...
   morphemes that can stand alone
   content/lexical words
    – nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs
   function words – ...
   affixes: prefixes, suffixes
   derivational - make new words or
                   change their categories
   inflec...
   make new words or change their categories
   Noun >         Adj
    care           care+ -ful > careful
             ...
Base      Suffix
Noun      +-ful                  Adj                      beauty + -ful

Verb      + -ment               ...
inflectional – changes the form of the word
                     but not its meaning
    -indicates grammatical function
...
   bound to nouns [Noun +] -
     –‘s / s’ (possessive) : Mary’s, the childrens’
     - s (plural), books, boys
   bound...
   /indefiniteness/ - a before a consonant - a boy
                      an before a vowel - an apple
▪   /plural/
▪   ca...
content/
                                                                              lexical
                           ...
   storage of words in a language; dictionary
    contents:
     phonological information/pronunciation
     meaning, r...
   phonological information
    sounds and phonotactics
   semantic information– meaning
   morphological information –...
Content words: nouns, verbs, adjectives,
  adverbs
 lexical morphemes
 denote concepts like objects, actions,
  attribut...
Function words : determiners/ articles,
 pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions
   grammatical function- connect words to
 ...
 Nouns
 Adjectives
 Verbs-
 Adverbs – modify verbs,
 adjectives, and other adverbs –



            PBET 1101 TESL Pro...
pronouns
   Personal pronouns – person- first, second, third
   Demonstrative – this, these; that, those
   Interrogati...
Determiners – precede nouns:
 def/indef articles– a, the
 demonstratives : this, that, these, those
 possessives : my, ...
Lexical/grammatical categories
1. words with parallel         book –books ; dog - dogs                          nouns
form...
Lexicalcategories

  Verbs          preceded by modals                         will, can, may, might, etc

  Adjectives   ...
grammatical categories
pronouns         personal                             person- first, second, third

               ...
McGregor, William B. 2009. Linguistics: An
 Introduction. London: Continuum International
 Publishing Group.
O'Grady, Will...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Morphology

4,871

Published on

Structure of Words and the Lexicon

Published in: Education
0 Comments
11 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
4,871
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
548
Comments
0
Likes
11
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Morphology

  1. 1. Dr. Jessie Grace U. Rubrico Facilitator
  2. 2. word structure  Rootword - car, beauty, write, near  Root + Affixes – cars, written, nearly, beautifully  parts: car + s; write + -en near + ly; beauty + ful + ly  each part has meaning : morpheme PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  3. 3.  morphemes –parts of words that carry meaning - smallest unit of meaning or grammatical function  rootword - one morpheme-word; - word cannot be divided PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  4. 4. Polysyllabic Words Rootword Prefix Suffix Morphemes 1. careless care -less 2 2. misleading lead mis- -ing 3 3. disloyalty loyal dis- -ty 3 4. disrespectfully respect dis- -ful; -ly 4 5. untruthfulness 6. previewer 7. shortened PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  5. 5.  morphemes that can stand alone  content/lexical words – nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs  function words – pronouns, prepositions, determiners, conjunctions PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  6. 6.  affixes: prefixes, suffixes  derivational - make new words or change their categories  inflectional – changes the form of the word but not its meaning -indicates grammatical function singular/plural ; tense; comparatives; possessive PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  7. 7.  make new words or change their categories  Noun > Adj care care+ -ful > careful care+ -less > careless  Adj > Noun good good + -ness > goodness lovely lovely + -ness > loveliness PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  8. 8. Base Suffix Noun +-ful Adj beauty + -ful Verb + -ment Noun establish + -ment Verb + -er Noun do + -er; work + -er Verb + -ive Adj prohibit + -ive Noun + -en Verb light + -en Adjective + -en Verb short + -en Adjective + -ness Noun good +-ness Adjective + -ly Adv beautiful + -ly PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  9. 9. inflectional – changes the form of the word but not its meaning -indicates grammatical function  number : plural or singular – boys, books  possession : ownership –attached to nouns  tense : past or present tense – dances, danced PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  10. 10.  bound to nouns [Noun +] - –‘s / s’ (possessive) : Mary’s, the childrens’ - s (plural), books, boys  bound to verbs [Verb +] -s (3rd person, singular) – dances, watches -ing (present participle) – dancing, watching -ed (past tense) – danced, watched -en/-ed (past participle) - they’ve done it  bound to adjectives [Adj +] –er : darker -est : darkest PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  11. 11.  /indefiniteness/ - a before a consonant - a boy an before a vowel - an apple ▪ /plural/ ▪ cat + /plural/ -[s] after voiceless segment: [kæts] ▪ dog + /plural/- [z] after voiced segment : [dɔgz] [dɒgz] ▪ judge + /plural/-[әz] after voiced segment  sheep + /plural/ - sheep + Ø : sheep  man + /plural/ - æ > ε : men (suppletion) PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  12. 12. content/ lexical free function morpheme derivational bound inflectional PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  13. 13.  storage of words in a language; dictionary contents:  phonological information/pronunciation  meaning, related words, sentence use  spelling  etymology (historical development) > not contain in the mental lexicon PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  14. 14.  phonological information sounds and phonotactics  semantic information– meaning  morphological information –formation of relations in word: past tense (V), plural (N)  syntactic information -category (noun or verb) and usage PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  15. 15. Content words: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs  lexical morphemes  denote concepts like objects, actions, attributes, ideas, etc.  semantic content (meaning)  open class words – add new words: download, byte, email PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  16. 16. Function words : determiners/ articles, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions  grammatical function- connect words to other words or phrases  closed class -articles a/an and the – marks definiteness/indef of nouns  preposition of -marks possession, etc. PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  17. 17.  Nouns  Adjectives  Verbs-  Adverbs – modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs – PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  18. 18. pronouns  Personal pronouns – person- first, second, third  Demonstrative – this, these; that, those  Interrogative pronouns – who, what, etc.  Relative pronouns –who, that, which, whose, whom –related to the preceding NP  Indefinite pronouns – someone, anyone, everyone, somebody, etc  pronouns: used independently, not as modifiers of other words PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  19. 19. Determiners – precede nouns:  def/indef articles– a, the  demonstratives : this, that, these, those  possessives : my, our, your, her, his, their  interrogatives: which what, whose Prepositions- typically precede nouns; give information about time, place, etc. Conjunctions: coordinating conjunctions –and, but, or – conjoin words of the same category - subordinating conjunctions – that, whenever, while, because PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  20. 20. Lexical/grammatical categories 1. words with parallel book –books ; dog - dogs nouns forms belong to tall- taller-tallest adjectives the same category small-smaller-smallest verbs walk – walks, walked play-plays-played 2. co-occurrence- Nouns preceded by a determiner the cat, my car, an egg take plural forms regular book-books irregular tooth – teeth, sheep-sheep PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  21. 21. Lexicalcategories Verbs preceded by modals will, can, may, might, etc Adjectives take very, or too; more, the most 3. relying on the meaning or function  nouns name persons, places, things, etc.  adjectives name qualities or properties of nouns  verbs - transitive – requires a Intransitive – does not describe noun phrase after it require a noun after it action (object)  adverbs – modifying adjectives swiftly, sweetly, courageously, usually, quickly; very/too tall modifying verbs often; here, soon, now modifying adverbs very soon, really incredible PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  22. 22. grammatical categories pronouns personal person- first, second, third demonstrative this, these; that, those interrogative who, what, etc. relative- relates to the who, that, which, whose, whom– preceding NP indefinite someone, anyone, somebody determiners: def/indef articles the, a, an precede nouns demonstratives this, that, these, those possessives my, our, your, her interrogatives which what, whose prepositions -typically precede a noun conjunctions -conjunctions coordinating conjunctions and, but, or -conjoin words of the same category -subordinators subordinating conjunctions that, whenever, while, because PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  23. 23. McGregor, William B. 2009. Linguistics: An Introduction. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. O'Grady, William D., Archibald, John, [eds.] (2009). Contemporary Linguistic Analysis: An Introduction, 6th edition. Ontario: Pearson Education Canada. Yule G. 2006. The study of language. Cambridge: CUP. PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×