The Lipids

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The Lipids

  1. 1. The Lipids Charles Lohman
  2. 2. Lipid Transport <ul><li>Fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the class of nutrients known as lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lipids include triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lipid transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composed primarily of triglycerides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low density lipoproteins (LDL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made primarily of cholesterol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This type of cholesterol is linked to heart disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think of L DL as L ess healthy (the bad cholesterol) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High density lipoproteins (HDL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composed primarily of protein </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This type helps to dispose or recycle cholesterol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think of H DL as H ealthy ( the good cholesterol) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Lipids in the Body <ul><li>Roles of triglycerides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can either come from food or from the body’s fat stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the body with energy, insulate the body, and act as natural shock absorbers for the body’s bones and vital organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient energy metabolism depends on fat, protein, and carbs all working together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose fragments combine with fat fragments during metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat and carbohydrates therefore spare the protein so that it can be used for other tasks in the body </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Lipids in the Body <ul><li>Essential fatty acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The human body needs fatty acids and can make all of them except two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.) Linoleic fatty acid ( omega 6 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>must be supplied by the diet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can obtain omega 6 from vegetable oils such as, corn oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.) Linolenic fatty acid ( omega 3 ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be supplied by the diet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can obtain them from albacore tuna, sardines, and salmon, and also from flax seeds or flax oil, walnuts, and olive oil </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Lipids in the Body <ul><li>Arachidonic acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyunsaturated fatty acid which can be made from omega 6 fatty acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eicosapentaenoic (EPA)/docasahexaenoic (DHA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made from omega 3 fatty acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are essential for normal growth and development, especially in the eyes and brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May also play a role in the prevention and treatment of heart disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eicosanoids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made from omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps lower blood pressure, prevent blood clot formation, protect against irregular heartbeats, and reduce inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fatty acid deficiencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A deficiency of omega 3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) may be associated with depression </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Lipids <ul><li>Health Effects of Lipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood lipid profile is used to determine a person’s total cholesterol, triglycerides, and various lipoproteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The results of this information alerts a person to possible disease risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The amounts and type of fats in the diet influence people’s risk for disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heart Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A major risk factor for cardiovascular disease is elevated blood cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This happens when cholesterol accumulates in the arteries, restricting blood flow and raising blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood cholesterol level is used to predict the likelihood of a heart attack or stroke </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Lipids <ul><li>Risks from Saturated Fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LDL (remember the BAD ) cholesterol raises the risk of heart disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated fats are most often implicated in raising LDL cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats from animal sources are the main sources of saturated fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tips to avoiding saturated fats: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.) Choose poultry or fish and fat free milk products to help lower saturated fat intake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.) Use non-hydrogenated margarine and unsaturated cooking oil </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Risks from Trans fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the body trans fatty acids alter blood cholesterol the same way some saturated fats do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They raise LDL cholesterol (bad) and with high intakes lower HDL cholesterol (good) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase inflammation and insulin resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated average intake of trans fatty acids in the United States is about 5 grams a day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The American Heart Association has stated that margarine is a better choice than butter because it does not contain dietary cholesterol </li></ul></ul>Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Lipids
  9. 9. <ul><li>Next Slide Introducing Sat and Trans -- The Bad Fats Brothers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=MSCnb8a5tp8 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Next Slide: BAN TRANS FATS! THEY ARE DEADLY! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AbJ4SE8uBEE&feature=related </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Lipids <ul><li>Risks from Cholesterol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its effects are not as strong as saturated or trans fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does raise blood cholesterol and increase risk of heart disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is found in all foods derived from animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For people trying to lower blood cholesterol limiting saturated fats is more effective than limiting cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most foods that are high in cholesterol are also high in saturated fats with the exception of eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One egg contains 1 gram of saturated fat and just over 200 milligrams of cholesterol (this is roughly 2/3 of the recommended intake for cholesterol) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>MEDICAL - How cholesterol clogs your arteries HD (atherosclerosis) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XZB2GciZnr4 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Lipids <ul><li>Benefits from Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most effective dietary strategy in preventing heart disease is replacing saturated and trans fats with mono and polyunsaturated fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Olive oil is a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids and also delivers valuable phytochemicals that help protect against heart disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacing saturated fats with the polyunsaturated fats of other vegetable oils also lowers blood cholesterol </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Health Effects and Recommended Intakes of Lipids <ul><li>Balancing of Omega 6 and Omega 3 Intakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To obtain sufficient intakes between omega 6 and omega 3 fats most people need to eat more fish and less meat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The American Heart Association recommends two servings of fish a week with an emphasis on fatty fish (salmon, herring, and mackeral) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fried fish from fast food restaurants and frozen fish products are often lower in omega 3 fats and high in trans and saturated fats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other sources of omega 3 fatty acids are omega 3 enriched eggs, wild game or pasture fed cattle ( which provides more omega 3 ‘s and less saturated fat than grain fed cattle) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Recommended Fat Intakes <ul><li>DRI and 2005 Dietary Guidelines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>suggest a diet low in saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol and provides 20 to 35 % of the daily energy intake from fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, with a 2000 calorie diet, 20 to 35% represents 400 to 700 calories, or roughly 45 to 75 grams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no daily value for trans fat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Part of this fat allowance should include linoleic acid (omega 6) which should provide 5 to 10% of daily energy intake and linolenic acid (omega 3) which should provide 0.6 to 1.2% </li></ul></ul></ul>

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