Wellness Chapter 2


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Wellness Chapter 2

  1. 1. Wellness Chapter 2 Guidelines for a Healthy Lifestyle
  2. 2. The Science of Psychoneuroimmunology (pp. 26-27) <ul><li>Psychoneuroimmunology – the scientific investigation of how the brain affects the body’s immune cells and how behavior can affect the immune system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on the links among the mind, the brain, and the immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research as shown the following effects of the mind-body connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive emotions can help protect the heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Among people with heart disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pessimism can be deadly and a optimism promotes healing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remaining calm during emotional conflict reduces the risk of heart attack </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety and suppressed anger increase the risk for premature death, as does depression </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Personality and Health (pp. 27-30) <ul><li>Personality – the whole of a person’s behavioral characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In essence, it is the pattern of behavior that distinguishes you from everyone else </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personality types and Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type A personality – a person who is hard-driving and competitive and also hostile, angry, and suspicious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also called the coronary-prone personality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased risk for heart attack </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type B personality – a person who is easy-going and generally free of hostility, anger, and suspicion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also called the relaxed personality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low levels of heart disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type C personality – a person who is emotionally unexpressive and demonstrates ambivalence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also called the cancer-prone personality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased risk for cancer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type D personality – a person who thinks negatively and isolates themselves from others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also called the distressed personality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irritation of an existing disorder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased risk for heart disease and prone to depression </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Emotional States that Affect Health (pp. 30-37) <ul><li>Anger – a temporary emotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Express anger appropriately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the right time and in a nondestructive manner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misdirected anger buries the real problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates more problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health consequences of serious suppressed anger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart disease, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, hives, acne, ulcers, migraine and etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological effects of chronic repression of anger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Release of chemicals and hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major contributor to arterial diseases because these chemical and hormones affect the proper functioning of the heart and amount of constriction or dilation of the arteries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hostility – a permanent kind of anger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is marked by explosive and vigorous vocal mannerisms, competitiveness, impatience, and irritability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In general, they want to hurt other people, either physically or verbally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of hostility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Independent risk factor for coronary heart disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous release of hormones that destroys health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weakens the branch of the nervous system designed to calm the body after an emergency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thus, the body does not recover from the surge of the stress hormones, does not calm down, and remains in a state of prolonged, harmful arousal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Emotional States that Affect Health (pp. 30-37) <ul><li>Perfectionism – compulsive pursuit of unrealistically high standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procrastination stems from perfectionism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because people put off projects because they fear they will make a mistake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem – know and like themselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They cherish their positive qualities and work to improve their negative traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High self-esteem facilitates emotional growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor self-esteem is linked closely to alcoholism, drug abuse and violence and etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Worry – dwell on something so much that we become apprehensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety – intense worry that is not grounded in reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impairs the immune system and results in physical illness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affects the heart and the circulatory system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear – when worry and anxiety escalate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretes adrenaline, which has a powerful effect on the heart </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Emotional States that Affect Health (pp. 30-37) <ul><li>Depression – apathy and a feeling of hopelessness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes it follows the loss of something valued or someone important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Death of a loved, termination of employment and etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes it is caused by biological factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A chemical imbalance in the brain, a physical illness and etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health consequences of depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impairs the immune system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones triggered by depression have significant damaging effects on the heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To combat depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral counseling, lifestyle modifications, and sometimes medications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suicide – serve depression can lead to suicide ( SEE p. 36 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The grief process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance, hope for the future Protecting your immune system while you grieve </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting the immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get plenty of rest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eat a balances diet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get plenty of fluids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise regularly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Hardiness (pp. 37-38) <ul><li>Hardiness – a set of personality traits marked by commitment, control, and challenge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The 3 Cs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment –a belief that life has meaning and a sense of direction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control – a belief that negative events can be influenced in a positive way </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge – ability to see change as an opportunity for growth and excitement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also termed emotional intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They stay positive under adverse circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a problem crops up, they look for resources and try out solutions. If one solution doesn’t work, they try another one </li></ul></ul></ul>