HLTH 200: Human Sexuality Chapter 9


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HLTH 200: Human Sexuality Chapter 9

  1. 1. Human Sexuality Chapter 9
  2. 2. Conception <ul><li>Conception – requires a single sperm cell from a man to penetrate and fertilize an ovum (egg) from a woman. (pp. 326-330) </li></ul><ul><li>The Ovum’s Journey (pp. 326-327) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a female is born, her ovaries contain approximately 2 million oocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oocytes are immature eggs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When a female reaches puberty, the oocytes have decreased to approximately 400,000 oocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This number of oocytes is hundreds of thousands more than she will release in her lifetime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Menarche - the beginning of menstruation during puberty; a girl’s first period </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Conception <ul><li>The Sperm’s Journey (pp. 328-329) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon reaching puberty, boys begin to produce sperm cells in large numbers and continue throughout their lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The length of time the sperm cells develop is 68 to 72 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The sperm cells that are beginning to develop in a man’s testicles today will NOT be ready to be ejaculated and fertilize an ovum for 10 weeks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The testicles produce about 50,00 sperm cells per minute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An average of 400 millions sperm cells are in a single ejaculation (Figure 9.6) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only one single sperm fertilizes an ovum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It takes so many sperm because they are NOT hardy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Conception <ul><li>The Ovum-Sperm “Join Together” (pp. 329-330) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ovum is capable of being fertilized for only 12 to 18 hours. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The best chance for fertilization is if sperm cells are already high up in the fallopian tube when the ovum arrives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zygote – a fertilized ovum moving down the fallopian tube </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upon successful fertilization: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The DNA of the man’s sperm and the woman’s ovum join together </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And a new organism is created </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Within hours this organism is now called a zygote </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The zygote divides into two cells, 4, 8 and so on AND it continue the 2 to 4 day journey along the remainder of the fallopian tube to the uterus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What we call a pregnancy test is actually a conception test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upon fertilization, hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) begins to increase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 2 weeks after conception the hormone has reached high enough levels that conception can be determined </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because hCG continues to increase day by day, the test becomes more reliable </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Pregnancy <ul><li>Pregnancy – the period of growth of the embryo and fetus in the uterus (pp. 330-332) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 4 days after fertilization, the zygote enters the uterus – It is now called a blastocyst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About the 6 th or 7 th day, the blastocyst plants into the uterus – It is now called an embryo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The blastocyst’s successful attachment to the uterine lining is the beginning of pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As pregnancy begin, the placenta begins to develop on the uterine wall adjacent to the embryo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The pacenta is the life-support system that biologically unties the developing embryo to the mother – called afterbirth during childbirth </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The umbilical cord attaches to the placenta and the abdominal wall of the fetus, which transport nutrients, oxygen, and fetal waste products back and forth between the fetus and the pacenta </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Pregnancy <ul><li>Trimesters – the embryo grows in 3 predictable stages over 9 months (40 weeks), which are divided into phases called trimesters (pp. 330-332) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First trimester – 1 st 3 months of pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic period – the initial 8 weeks of pregnancy following fertilization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the end of this period, the embryo becomes known as a fetus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critical time for the developing embryo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The risk of miscarriage in the highest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second trimester – 2 nd 3 months of pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>quickening – the first movement of the fetus that is felt by the mother occurs early in the second trimester </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The growth of the fetus accelerates greatly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The pregnancy is firmly established </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The risk of miscarriage decrease </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third trimester – 3 rd 3 months of pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The growth of the fetus highly increases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add up to a foot in length </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add at least 7 more pounds birth </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal maturation, layers of fat, muscle tone, and rotation into head-down position in the womb </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Potential Problems in Pregnancy <ul><li>Ectopic pregnancy – a pregnancy complication in which a fertilized ovum attaches and begins to grow outside the uterus, mostly commonly in the fallopian tube, termed tubal pregnancy (pp. 332-334) </li></ul><ul><li>Miscarriage – the loss of an embryo or fetus (without any purposeful intervention) during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, also called spontaneous abortion (pp. 334-335) </li></ul><ul><li>Preterm birth – birth of an infant less then 37 weeks after conception, also called premature birth (pp. 335-336) </li></ul><ul><li>Birth defect – a physical abnormality or metabolic dysfunction that is present at birth and may result in physical or mental deficits, also called fetal abnormalities (pp. 336-337) </li></ul><ul><li>Teratogens – any agent that has the potential to cause a fetal abnormality (pp. 337-338) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Abortion <ul><li>Abortion – an intentional termination of a pregnancy before week 37 (pp. 339-346) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-choice – the belief that w woman has the moral and legal right to choose freely to abort her pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-life – the belief that voluntary abortion is akin to murder and the it should be illegal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum aspiration – a method of abortion in which a small tube is inserted through the cervix to extract the contents of the uterus, including the endometrium lining and embedded embryo (SEE 9.14, p. 341) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dilation and evacuation (D&E) – a method of abortion commonly used when a pregnancy has progressed beyond the first trimester, involving scraping o the uterine walls and suctioning out of the contents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medical abortion – a method of abortion using drugs rather than surgery to terminate a pregnancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEE Table 9.5 for pro and cons of medical and surgical abortion method (p. 344) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Birth <ul><li>Birth – at about 40 weeks of gestation , just before the onset of labor, changes occur in the uterus and especially in the placenta (pp. 346-353) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During this time, the mother’s brain is signaled to increase production of various chemicals and hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Out of all the chemicals, a corticotropin-releasing hormone is intimately linked to the beginning of childbirth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It signals the uterus to begin contractions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The various chemical changes creates the first sign of labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 stages of labor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 st stage of the birth process involves the beginning of contractions of the uterus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The various chemical changes cause biological a signal to the baby and the mother to begin labor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd stage of the birth process involves contractions that occur closer together than in the 1 st stage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It involves the muscles of the abdomen as well as the uterus, and continue until the infant has been expelled from the mother’s body </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd stage of the birth process is when the placenta is expelled from the uterus with the umbilical cord attached </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This occurs within a few minutes after the completed birth </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Choices and Decisions in Childbirth <ul><li>Doctor or midwife (p. 350) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OB/GYN – short for obstetrician-gynecologist, a physician specializing in women’s health care and childbirth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midwife – a person (usually a woman) who has been trained in most aspects of pregnancy, labor, and delivery but who is NOT a phsyician or registered nurse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nurse-midwife –a registered nurse who has completed an accredited midwifery program and has been certified by the state to deliver babies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Birthing settings (pp. 350-351) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birthing center – a hospital-like facility with basic medical care equipment, focusing on a natural, family-centered approach to the birth process in a homelike setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home birth – delivery of an infant in a private home setting, usually with necessary equipment and personnel provided by a professional service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Birth by cesarean section (C-section birth) (p. 352) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of a fetus from the mother’s uterus surgically, through an incision in her abdomen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical debate: Some say this option is unnecessary surgery and goes the basic tenet of the medical code, “do know harm.” Others say women have the right to choose how to have their baby. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Impaired Fertility <ul><li>Infertility – a failure to conceive for 12 consecutive months despite persistent attempts (p. 356) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes of impaired fertility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>25% due to a male sperm factor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Love number, poor quality, or low motility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20% due to a female ovarian problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No ovulation or poor quality ova </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>14% due to a female tubal problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fallopian tube blockage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>41% due to other problems or unexplained infertility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>READ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertility Testing (pp. 359-360) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution Treatments (pp. 360-362) </li></ul></ul>