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  1. 1. Water Charles Lohman
  2. 2. Water <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water constitutes about 60% of an adult’s body weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>body composition influences how much of the body’s weight is water because there is more contained in lean tissue and less in fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water is an essential nutrient, more important than any others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the body needs more water each day than any other nutrient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>you can survive only few days without water, where a deficiency of other nutrients may take weeks, months or even years to develop </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Water and Body Fluids <ul><li>Water and the body’s life processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water carries nutrients and waste products throughout the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water maintains the structure of large molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water participates in metabolic processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water acts as a lubricant and cushion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water aids in the regulation of body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water maintains blood volume </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Water Balance and Recommended Intakes <ul><li>Water Intake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thirst and satiety influence water intake in response to changes in the mouth, the hypothalamus and nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when there is inadequate water intake the blood becomes concentrated, the mouth becomes dry, and the hypothalamus initiates drinking behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when water intake is excessive, the stomach expands and stretch receptors send signals to stop drinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when too much water is lost from the body and not replaced, dehydration develops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water intoxication is rare, but can occur with excessive water ingestion and kidney disorders that reduce urine production </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Water Balance and Recommended Intakes <ul><li>Water Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>obvious dietary sources of water are water itself and other beverages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nearly all foods contain water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fruits and vegetables contain about 90% water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meats and cheeses contain about 50% water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water is also generated during metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Losses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the body must excrete at least 2 cups of water each day as urine, which is enough to carry away waste products generated by the body’s metabolic processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water is also lost from the lungs as vapor and from the skin as sweat </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Water Balance and Recommended Intakes <ul><li>Water Recommendations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>about 8 to 12 cups which is based on a person who expends 2000 kcalories a day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>total water includes not only drinking water, but water in other beverages and foods as well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people who are physically active or live in hot environments may need more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beverages currently represent over 20% of the total energy intake in the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most people would well to select water as their preferred beverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some research suggests that people who drink caffeinated beverages lose a little more fluid than when drinking water because caffeine acts as a diuretic </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Water Balance and Recommended Intakes <ul><li>Health Effects of Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drinking water may protect against urinary stones and constipation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>even mild dehydration seems to interfere with daily tasks involving concentration, alertness, and short term memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the kind of water a person drinks may also make a difference to health; hard water vs soft water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hard water has high concentrations of calcium and magnesium which may benefit hypertension and heart disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>soft water contains sodium and potassium which may aggravate hypertension and heart disease </li></ul></ul>