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A fatty substance found only in animal and human cells. Because it can be made in the body, it is not an essential dietary requirement.

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  2. 2. HYPERLIPIDEMIA Cholesterol Definitions A fatty substance found only in animal and human cells. Because it can be made in the body, it is not an essential dietary requirement. Large amounts of cholesterol are found in egg yolks, liver, brains, kidney, and fatty meats. There is good fat cholesterol and bad fat cholesterol. About 75 % of the cholesterol in your body is made in the liver. Cholesterol is used to make cell membranes. It is also used to produce steriod hormones in the sex organs and in the adrenal glands. And, as an ingredient in bile acids, it may aid digestion. Elevated blood cholesterol is a major cause of heart disease. Cholesterol A combination of fat and proteins, including cholesterol. Lipoproteins A basic fatty component of living cells. They may be either in liquid or solid form. Lipids Any oil substance made up of chains of fatty acids. FAT
  3. 3. HYPERLIPIDEMIA Cholesterol Definitions (cont.) The most common form of fat in the diet and in the human body. Too much of these fats puts a person at risk for pancreatitis – inflammation of the pancreas – as well as increased risk of getting a heart attack or stroke. Tryglycerides are carried in the very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) which we can add to other low density lipoproteins. Triglycerides A “good” form of cholesterol – a good fat! High-density lipoproteins help to move the bad kind of cholesterol out of the cells. High-density lipoproteins can be increased by exercise, by not smoking, and by using monounsaturated fats and omega-3 fatty acids instead of saturated fats. A helpful way to remember that HDL is a goo fat cholesterol is think of it as a healthy lipoprotein. A low level of HDL is associated with heart disease. High levels of HDL indicate a lower risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) aka “Good” Cholesterol A particularly harmful form of fatty cholesterol. As blood and tissue levels of LDL cholesterol become elevated, the low-density cholesterol collect on the inside walls of the coronary arteries, starting process of fat- filled cells and scar-like tissues called plaque that progressively blocks the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) aka “Bad” Cholesterol
  4. 4. HYPERLIPIDEMIA Cholesterol Values cont. Elevated if overweight and with high consumption of fat and simple sugars (desserts, alcohol, etc.) Triglycerides should be under <100. Elevated if overweight and with high consumption of fate and simple sugar (dessert, alcohol, etc.) Must be measured after 12 hour fast Triglycerides LDL = Total Chol – (HDL + Triglycerides ) 5 Not measured directly – usually calculated) Should be under <50 – 70. (If CHD or risk factors, under 130) LDL Cholesterol Total Chol/HDL Ratio under 4.5 (Ideal under 3.5) Most accurate Predictor of risk Total Cholesterol/HDL At risk if under 35 mg/dl Woman average 55 mg/dl – Men 45 mg/dl HDL Cholesterol Poor indicator of risk – need breakdown (Exception – if total cholesterol under 150 mg/dl). For each 1 % reduction in cholesterol – 2.3 % reduction in CHD Should be under <150 mg/dl Total Cholesterol