Protein synthesis
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  • 1. DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis http://faculty.uca.edu/~johnc/mbi1440.htm http://www.wappingersschools.org/RCK/staff/teacherhp/johnson/visualvocab/mRNA.gif
  • 2. Biochemical reactions occurring in all cells are catalyzed by enzymes.
    • Collision model: Molecules must collide with enough kinetic at the proper orientation to break bonds
  • 3. Enzymes are catalyst that lower activation energy.
    • In order to react
    • must collide with enough KE to break bonds – the activation energy
    • With a lower activation energy, more collisions will have enough KE to react.
    • So the reaction is faster.
  • 4. Enzymes increase the rate of the reaction at the same temperature
  • 5. Enzymes are proteins.
    • Glycolysis is one of the simplest biochemical pathaways.
    • Each of the ten steps is catalyzed by a unique enzyme
    • Each of those enzymes is synthesized in each cell
    • Each enzyme is coded for in the DNA of the cell
  • 6. Proteins – a string of amino acids SERINE – one of 20 amino acids
  • 7. Proteins – a string of amino acids
    • Peptide bonds
    • form between amino acids
  • 8. Structure of DNA Hydrogen bonds Sugar-phosphate backbone Key Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Section 12-1 DNA – base pairs carry the genetic code for the sequence of the amino acids Nucleotide
  • 9. Nucleotides in the DNA strand carry the code for proteins
    • Image by: Riedell
  • 10.   Nitrogen bases =“Steps of ladder” Purines (2 rings) Pyrimidines (1 ring) A G C T Phosphate group Deoxyribose sugar © Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved
  • 11.   Nitrogen bases =“Steps of ladder” A G C T Phosphate group Deoxyribose sugar © Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved ADENINE GUANINE CYTOSINE THYMINE
  • 12. CHARGAFF’S RULES
    • A = T G = C
    Image from: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/images/dna_bases.gif _________ _________ At time no one knew why… now we know its because Adenine always bonds across with____________ Guanine always bonds across with ____________ THYMINE CYTOSINE
  • 13. RNA and PROTEIN SYNTHESIS © Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved DNA is safely stored in the nucleus. mRNA (messenger RNA) brings a copy of the code out to the cytoplasm.
  • 14. Transcription - Making a copy of the DNA code RNA DNA RNA polymerase Adenine (DNA and RNA) Cystosine (DNA and RNA) Guanine(DNA and RNA) Thymine (DNA only) Uracil (RNA only) Enzyme called RNA polymerase separates strands of DNA, then uses one strand as a template to assemble an mRNA copy. mRNA will carry the “script” out of the nucleus to the cytoplasm
  • 15. RNA- the Other Nucleic Acid
    • Also made of nucleotides
    • Sugar is ribose instead
    • of deoxyribose.
    • RNA is single stranded, instead of doubled stranded.
    • Contains uracil instead
    • of thymine.
    http://images2.clinicaltools.com/images/gene/dna_versus_rna_reversed.jpg
  • 16. MASTER PLAN DNA stays safe in nucleus TRANSCRIPTION (DNA -> RNA) & PROCESSING (remove interons) takes place in nucleus TRANSLATION (RNA-> proteins) takes place on ribosomes in cytoplasm © Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved “ Blueprints” of master plan are carried to building site http://www.home-improvement-resource.com/images/architect.jpg
  • 17. Translation - Translating the base pair codes into an amino acid sequence mRNA – the copy of the code sequence of base pairs tRNA – carries the amino acid to the ribosome as coded for in the mRNA – codons code for specific amino acids.
  • 18.
    • ___________
    • on tRNA
    • matches up with
    • ________
    • on mRNA
    Images modified from © Pearson Education Inc, publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved ANTICODON CODON EACH tRNA carries only one kind of _____________ amino acid
  • 19. HOW CAN JUST 4 BASES GIVE DIRECTIONS TO MAKE 20 AMINO ACIDS?
    • Message is read in groups of 3 = _________
    • UCGCACGGU
    • UCG-CAC-GGU
    CODON Codons represent different amino acids Serine - Histidine - Glycine
  • 20.   The m-RNA Code 64 possible codons Some amino acids have more than one codon. START= _______ 3 codons for _____ AUG STOP
  • 21.  
  • 22. Translation - Translating the base pair codes into an amino acid sequence
  • 23. Translation (continued)
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26.