DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis http://faculty.uca.edu/~johnc/mbi1440.htm http://www.wappingersschools.org/RCK/staff/teacherhp/johnson/visualvocab/mRNA.gif
Biochemical reactions occurring in all cells are catalyzed by enzymes.
Collision model: Molecules must collide with enough kinetic at the proper orientation to break bonds
Enzymes are catalyst that lower activation energy.
In order to react
must collide with enough KE to break bonds – the activation energy
With a lower activation energy, more collisions will have enough KE to react.
So the reaction is faster.
Enzymes increase the rate of the reaction at the same temperature
Enzymes are proteins.
Glycolysis is one of the simplest biochemical pathaways.
Each of the ten steps is catalyzed by a unique enzyme
Each of those enzymes is synthesized in each cell
Each enzyme is coded for in the DNA of the cell
Proteins – a string of amino acids SERINE – one of 20 amino acids
Proteins – a string of amino acids
form between amino acids
Structure of DNA Hydrogen bonds Sugar-phosphate backbone Key Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Section 12-1 DNA – base pairs carry the genetic code for the sequence of the amino acids Nucleotide
Nucleotides in the DNA strand carry the code for proteins
Image from: http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/images/dna_bases.gif _________ _________ At time no one knew why… now we know its because Adenine always bonds across with____________ Guanine always bonds across with ____________ THYMINE CYTOSINE
Transcription - Making a copy of the DNA code RNA DNA RNA polymerase Adenine (DNA and RNA) Cystosine (DNA and RNA) Guanine(DNA and RNA) Thymine (DNA only) Uracil (RNA only) Enzyme called RNA polymerase separates strands of DNA, then uses one strand as a template to assemble an mRNA copy. mRNA will carry the “script” out of the nucleus to the cytoplasm
RNA- the Other Nucleic Acid
Also made of nucleotides
Sugar is ribose instead
RNA is single stranded, instead of doubled stranded.
Translation - Translating the base pair codes into an amino acid sequence mRNA – the copy of the code sequence of base pairs tRNA – carries the amino acid to the ribosome as coded for in the mRNA – codons code for specific amino acids.